Phoenix, AZ, United States
Phoenix, AZ, United States

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Patent
Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. | Date: 2016-06-17

A series of independent human-induced non-transgenic mutations found at one or more of the Lpx genes of wheat; wheat plants having these mutations in one or more of their Lpx genes; and a method of creating and finding similar and/or additional mutations of Lpx by screening pooled and/or individual wheat plants. The wheat plants disclosed herein exhibit decreased lipoxygenase activity without having the inclusion of foreign nucleic acids in their genomes. Additionally, products produced from the wheat plants disclosed herein display increased oxidative stability and increased shelf life without having the inclusion of foreign nucleic acids in their genomes.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Celiac disease CD is the most common food sensitive enteropathy known affecting approximately of the population and its incidence appears to be on the rise In addition non celiac gluten sensitivity GS has recently been revealed to be a distinct condition that affects a growing number of individuals Both of these conditions are triggered by gluten a complex mixture of proline and glutamine rich seed storage proteins found in wheat barley and rye Because these proteins are resistant to digestion they persist in the gastrointestinal tract and cause an auto inflammatory response in susceptible individuals Currently the only treatment for these conditions is the maintenance of a strict glute free diet This proposal will test the safety of reduced gluten RG cereal grains using barley a a model cereal in combination with a gluten degrading enzyme supplement in a non human primate model of celiac disease the rhesus macaque Rhesus macaques have been shown to develop a condition that is analogous to human celiac disease when gluten is included in their diet and the condition improves upon gluten withdrawal In ongoing research the PI has been identifying low gluten variants of barley and wheat while the academic collaborators have been developing the animal model of celiac disease and a gluten degrading protease supplement respectively Eliminating all gluten from the diet can be difficult for those suffering from CD or GS and the use of a gluten degrading supplement by itself is not intended to permit these groups to resume unrestricted gluten consumption We believe that a synergistic therapy combining reduced gluten grains with a gluten protease supplement may provide the opportunity for these individuals to introduce limited quantities of reduced gluten cereals into their diets Testing this hypothesis in a non human primate model is the objective of the proposed research The commercial outcome of this proposal will be reduced gluten variants of barley for which there will be increased assurance of acceptability for multiple food products RG barley represents a new category of cereal grain that may play a role in providing an alternative to the gluten free diet for CD and GS individuals in combination with other therapies The wide adoption of RG barley and other RG grains could ultimately reduce the incidence of these conditions Basic knowledge about the seed characteristics of RG barley may pave the way for RG wheat PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Celiac Disease is a common intestinal inflammatory condition that affects about of the population and it is increasing in incidence It is triggered by proteins in barley wheat and rye Similarly non celiac gluten sensitivity is triggered by the sam proteins and it too seems to be increasing in incidence We are proposing to develop reduced gluten barley varieties that may serve as components of an alternative to the gluten free diet for these individuals


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 689.50K | Year: 2013

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Celiac disease (CD) is the most common food sensitive enteropathy known, affecting approximately 1% of the population and its incidence appears to be on the rise. In addition, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (GS) has recently been revealed to be a distinct condition that affects a growing number of individuals. Both of these conditions are triggered by gluten, a complex mixture of proline and glutamine-rich seed storage proteins found in wheat, barley and rye. Because these proteins are resistant to digestion they persist in the gastrointestinal tract and cause an auto-inflammatory response in susceptible individuals. Currently the only treatment for these conditions is the maintenance of a strict glute free diet. This proposal will test the safety of reduced gluten (RG) cereal grains, using barley a a model cereal, in combination with a gluten degrading enzyme supplement in a non-human primate model of celiac disease, the rhesus macaque. Rhesus macaques have been shown todevelop a condition that is analogous to human celiac disease when gluten is included in their diet, and the condition improves upon gluten withdrawal. In ongoing research, the PI has been identifying low gluten variants of barley and wheat, while the academic collaborators have been developing the animal model of celiac disease, and a gluten-degrading protease supplement, respectively. Eliminating all gluten from the diet can be difficult for those suffering from CD or GS, and the use of a gluten degrading supplement by itself is not intended to permit these groups to resume unrestricted gluten consumption. We believe that a synergistic therapy combining reduced gluten grains with a gluten protease supplement may provide the opportunity for these individuals to introduce limited quantities of reduced gluten cereals into their diets. Testing this hypothesis in a non-human primate model is the objective of the proposed research. The commercial outcome of this proposal will be reduced gluten variants of barley for which there will be increased assurance of acceptability for multiple food products. RG barley represents a new category of cereal grain that may play a role in providing an alternative to the gluten free diet for CD and GS individuals in combination with other therapies. The wide adoption of RG barley and other RG grains could ultimately reduce the incidence of these conditions. Basic knowledge about the seed characteristics of RG barley may pave the way for RG wheat. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Celiac Disease is a common intestinal inflammatory condition that affects about 1% of the population and it is increasing in incidence. It is triggered by proteins in barley, wheat and rye. Similarly, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is triggered by the sam proteins and it too seems to be increasing in incidence. We are proposing to develop reduced gluten barley varieties that may serve as components of an alternative to the gluten free diet for these individuals.


Patent
Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. | Date: 2014-07-07

A series of independent human-induced, non-transgenic mutations found in at least one non-ripening (NOR) gene of tomato; tomato plants having these mutations in at least one of their NOR genes; and a method of creating and identifying similar and/or additional mutations in the NOR gene by screening pooled and/or individual tomato plants. The tomato plants of the present invention exhibit fruit that ripen more slowly, rot more slowly, are firmer, and have a longer shelf life post-harvest as a result of non-transgenic mutations in at least one of their NOR genes.


Patent
Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. | Date: 2014-07-07

A series of independent human-induced, non-transgenic mutations found in at least one non-ripening (NOR) gene of tomato; tomato plants having these mutations in at least one of their NOR genes; and a method of creating and identifying similar and/or additional mutations in the NOR gene by screening pooled and/or individual tomato plants. The tomato plants of the present invention exhibit fruit that ripen more slowly, rot more slowly, are firmer, and have a longer shelf life post-harvest as a result of non-transgenic mutations in at least one of their NOR genes.


Patent
Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. | Date: 2015-08-13

A series of independent human-induced non-transgenic mutations found at one or more of the SBEII genes of wheat; wheat plants having these mutations in one or more of their SBEII genes; and a method of creating and finding similar and/or additional mutations of SBEII by screening pooled and/or individual wheat plants. The seeds and flour from the wheat plants of the present invention exhibit an increase in amylose and resistant starch without having the inclusion of foreign nucleic acids in their genomes. Additionally, the wheat plants of the present invention exhibit altered SBEII activity without having the inclusion of foreign nucleic acids in their genomes.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2015

Soybean meal has long been a critical input for animal feed in monogastric animals (such as chickens and pigs) as it provides an ideal protein profile to promote healthy, rapid animal growth at a competitive price. More recently, aquaculture, the fastest growing commercial animal protein segment, has sought to take advantage of the protein and cost advantages of soybean meal as an affordable protein substitute to more expensive and less sustainable fish feeds. In 2013, global aquaculture feed included approximately 15 million metric tons of soybean meal, or about 525 million bushels of soybeans. With global aquaculture production poised to double in the next 20 years the need for sustainable, cost effective feed inputs will be greater than ever - and soybean-based feeds must be part of the solution. Unfortunately, soy feeds use in aquaculture remains limited due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF) including undigested oligosaccharides, lectins that damage the intestinal lining and phytate that binds to and prevents the uptake of proteins.Our ultimate goal is to generate a soybean variety (or soybean varieties) with eliminated or reduced ANFs to support increased feed conversion ratios (FCRs) and allow for greater soybean meal inclusion in feeding rations. Our project will leverage Arcadia's robust soybean TILLING library, which has enough genetic diversity to evaluate the ANF levels in plants with a range of mutations in targeted genes - thus creating the best potential to identify commercially attractive traits. More precisely, in phase 1 we will identify allelic series of nonsense and missense mutations in genes directly responsible for the synthesis of the three targeted ANFs.In phase 2, the best mutations for each of the ANF traits will be introgressed into an elite soybean variety. The effects of each mutation on the phenotype and agronomic characteristics of the new varieties will be evaluated individually and in combination to produce a "low ANF" variety with competitive agronomic performance.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 600.00K | Year: 2016

With global aquaculture production poised to double in the next 20 years the need for sustainable, cost effective feed inputs will be greater than ever - and soybean-based feeds can be part of the solution. Unfortunately, soy feeds use remains limited due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors including undigested oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, lectins that damage the intestinal lining, and phytate that binds to and prevents the uptake of proteins and essential cations. This is particularly prevalent for high-value carnivorous species such as salmon, char and trout where feed rations can only contain as little as 8% soy meal. Over Phase I of the project, we have identified and characterized at the molecular level allelic series of nonsense and missense mutations in the genes directly responsible for the synthesis of the targeted anti-nutritional factors. We have grown a collection of selected mutants carrying homozygous mutation for each allele of interest. In Phase II, we will fully phenotype the selected homozygotes and isolate the lines with best growth habits as source material for genetic crosses. Genetic crosses will be performed to combine mutated alleles to produce lines with: a single low anti-nutritional trait (low lectin, low oligosaccharides, low phytate), or to combine two, or finally three anti-nutritional traits (low lectin + low oligosaccharides + lower phytate). The effects of each mutation alone or in combination will be evaluated for agronomic performance. The transfer of the traits into elite varieties would start as soon as the phenotype for each trait has been assessed. By the end of Phase II we will produce enough product for a fish feeding study.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2016

The U.S. is the largest wheat exporter globally, yet the competitiveness of U.S. wheat, both globally and domestically, is declining significantly. Planted acreage is down thirty percent since the 1980s, in large part due to competition from other crops with higher returns. Net returns to farmers from wheat are consistently half or less than that from corn and soy. Further, the rate of growth in wheat yield has stalled and historically has grown at one fourth that of corn (USDA ERS). The Economic Research Service posits that genetic improvement of wheat has been slower due to the complexity of the wheat genome and the lower value capture opportunities for the private sector from investments in research (USDA Wheat Baseline 2012-21). The competitiveness of U.S. wheat will depend upon reversing these trends, including stimulating yield growth rates through private sector investment.With the aim of increasing yield in wheat, we have used TILLING, a reverse genetics tool, to identify novel alleles of candidate wheat yield genes in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. These alleles will be evaluated for the ability to alter wheat architecture and improve yield in the greenhouse and field during the scope of this proposal. Following successful field trials, Arcadia will license these technologies for commercialization through one or more of our current wheat partners. As a non-GM technology, products from TILLING can rapidly advance to commercialization and do not face market or regulatory restrictions. With a conservative 5% increase in yield, the yearly value creation to the U.S. farmer is estimated at over $30/hectare. In addition, the value of higher yielding wheat varieties to a seed company arising from this research in the U.S. alone is more than $40 million annually. In summary, by incorporating favorable alleles of plant architecture genes into a commercial wheat breeding program we believe we can make a significant contribution to improving yield in this vital food crop.


A series of independent human-induced non-transgenic mutations found in an expansin gene (LeExp1) of tomato; tomato plants having these mutations in their LeExp1 genes; and a method of creating and identifying similar and/or additional mutations in the LeExp1 gene by screening pooled and/or individual tomato plants. The tomato plants of the present invention exhibit fruit that soften more slowly post-harvest without having the inclusion of foreign nucleic acids in their genomes.

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