Seibersdorf, Austria
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Montealegre Melendez I.,ARC Seibersdorf Research | Neubauer E.,ARC Seibersdorf Research | Angerer P.,CEST Center Of Electrochemical Surface Technology | Danninger H.,Vienna University of Technology | Torralba J.M.,Charles III University of Madrid
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The goal of this work is the evaluation of nanoscaled reinforcements; in particular nanodiamonds (NDs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on properties of titanium matrix composites (TiMMCs). By using nano sized materials as reinforcement in TiMMCs, superior mechanical and physical properties can be expected. Additionally, titanium powder metallurgy (P/M) offers the possibility of changing the reinforcement content in the matrix within a very wide range. In this work, TiMMCs have been produced from titanium powder (Grade 4). The manufacturing of the composites was done by hot pressing, followed by the characterisation of the TiMMCs. The Archimedes density, hardness and oxygen content of the specimens in addition to the mechanical properties were compared and reported in this work. Moreover, XRD analysis and SEM observations revealed in situ formed titanium carbide (TiC) phase after hot pressing in TiMMCs reinforced with NDs and CNTs, at 900 °C and 1100 °C respectively. The strengthening effect of NDs was more significant since its distribution was more homogeneous in the matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.6.3 | Award Amount: 3.08M | Year: 2008

The GEOSS INSPIRE and GMES an Action in Support (GIGAS) promotes the coherent and interoperable development of the GMES, INSPIRE and GEOSS initiatives through their concerted adoption of standards, protocols, and open architectures. Given the complexity and dynamics of each initiative and the large number of stakeholders involved, the key added value of GIGAS is bringing together the leading organisations in Europe who are able to make a difference and achieve a truly synergistic convergence of the initiatives. Among them, the Joint Research Centre is the technical coordinator of INSPIRE, the European Space Agency is responsible for the GMES space component, and both organisations together with a third partner, the Open Geospatial Consortium play a leading role in the development of the GEOSS architecture and components. This core group is supported by key industrial players in the space and geographic information sectors, with the scientific leadership of the Fraunhofer Institute. This consortium will achieve the objectives set through an iterative and consensus based approach which includes: in-depth analysis of the requirements and barriers to interoperability in each of the three initiatives and strategic FP 6/FP 7 projects; comparative evaluation of this activity as input to a forum of key stakeholders at a European level; consensus building in the forum on how to update and integrate the architectures of GMES, INSPIRE and GEOSS, and influence standards development and adoption. From these recommendations follow actions to shape the direction of the initiatives and to define a roadmap for future development, including the key research topics to be addressed to sustain the convergence of the initiatives. GIGAS thus will contribute to the emergence of a collaborative information space for accessing and sharing distributed environmental resources in Europe. This will represent a milestone towards building a Single Information Space in Europe for the Environment.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.3.7 | Award Amount: 745.82K | Year: 2008

ProSE is a supporting standardisation action in the field of Embedded Systems (ES) in which standards are of strategic importance for the creation of markets. ProSE will provide a vision and recommendations on the way that Embedded Systems standards can create cross business domains synergies: - by addressing specific cross domain issues such as the reusability, reliability of the embedded software, verification and certification; - by investigating the existing specific domains (Aeronautics, Automotive, Rail, Energy, Telecom, Consumer, Medical...) in order to identify cross-domain potential synergies and promoting the ProSE vision towards standardization bodies; - by establishing links between the ES industry (facilitating the engagement of SMEs), EU standardization bodies (ETSI, CEN, CENELEC, AUTOSAR ) and worldwide standardization bodies (ARINC, ITU, IEC, ISO,), and the research community (Particularly Networks of Excellence, ERCIM, ENCRESS Clubs and the like); - by delivering a Strategic Agenda for standardisation. This Strategic Agenda aims at serving as an input to the future EU and National work programmes. For this purpose, the project will develop a framework for analysis of the present standardization position and a method to determine standardization priorities for ES. The project will identify relevant standardization organizations and develop criteria for evaluating candidate standards, a work model and procedures for promoting these candidates to reach the status of a standard in the long term, and establish a process that is intended to continue in a self-sustaining way beyond the 2 years of the project. This is accompanied by awareness building communication and dissemination to stakeholders and the public.


Neumann L.C.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Weinhausel A.,ARC Seibersdorf Research | Thomas S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Horsthemke B.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare eye tumor. There are two classes of UM, which can be discriminated by the chromosome 3 status or global mRNA expression profile. Metastatic progression is predominantly originated from class II tumors or from tumors showing loss of an entire chromosome 3 (monosomy 3). We performed detailed EFS (embryonal Fyn-associated substrate) methylation analyses in UM, cultured uveal melanocytes and normal tissues, to explore the role of the differentially methylated EFS promoter region CpG island in tumor classification and metastatic progression.Methods: EFS methylation was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products from bisulfite-treated DNA or by sequence analysis of individual cloned PCR products. The results were associated with clinical features of tumors and tumor-related death of patients.Results: Analysis of 16 UM showed full methylation of the EFS CpG island in 8 (50%), no methylation in 5 (31%) and partial methylation in 3 (19%) tumors. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher risk of metastatic progression for tumors with EFS methylation (p = 0.02). This correlation was confirmed in an independent set of 24 randomly chosen tumors. Notably, only UM with EFS methylation gave rise to metastases. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR expression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of EFS mRNA expression with EFS methylation in UM. We further found that EFS methylation is tissue-specific with full methylation in peripheral blood cells, and no methylation in sperm, cultured primary fibroblasts and fetal muscle, kidney and brain. Adult brain samples, cultured melanocytes from the uveal tract, fetal liver and 3 of 4 buccal swab samples showed partial methylation. EFS methylation always affects both alleles in normal and tumor samples.Conclusions: Biallelic EFS methylation is likely to be the result of a site-directed methylation mechanism. Based on partial methylation as observed in cultured melanocytes we hypothesize that there might be methylated and unmethylated precursor cells located in the uveal tract. The EFS methylation of a UM may depend on which type of precursor cell the tumor originated from. © 2011 Neumann et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ferscha A.,Johannes Kepler University | Vogl S.,ARC Seibersdorf Research
IEEE Pervasive Computing | Year: 2010

Spectacles is a hardware/software platform developed from off-the-shelf components and ready for market. It includes local computation and communication facilities, an integrated power supply, and modular system building blocks such as sensors, voice-to-text and text-to-speech components, localization and positioning units, and microdisplay units. Its see-through display components are integrated into eyeglass frames. © 2010 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.8.5 | Award Amount: 1.63M | Year: 2009

The goal of the eMorph project is to design asynchronous vision sensors with non-uniform morphology, using analog VLSI neuromorphic circuits, and to develop a supporting data-driven asynchronous computational paradigm for machine-vision that is radically different from conventional image processing. The mainstream computational paradigm in embodied intelligence is digital and it is clear that conventional digital systems have difficulties in performing robustly even in the most mundane tasks of perception. They require vast amounts of resources to extract relevant information, but still fail to produce appropriate responses for interacting with the real-world in real time. In addition, in sensory perception tasks, the data acquired from the sensors is typically noisy and ambiguous. Frame-based time sampling and quantization artifacts present in conventional sensors are particularly problematic for robust and reliable performance. The situation is clearly different in biological systems. In particular, biological neural systems vastly outperform conventional digital machines in almost all aspects of sensory perception tasks. Despite its dramatic progress, information technology has not yet been able to deliver artificial systems that can compare with biology. There are limitations both at the technological level, and at the theoretical/computational level. Analog computation - free from the limits of sampling - provides a solution. Analog devices are fast, as time constants are in the range of the rising time of the transistor currents. Event-driven computation intrinsically adapts the sensor response to the time constants of the real world. The sensor response is automatically regulated to match the incoming signal range, and so is robust. Moreover as only important events are coded, they are also efficient. The eMorph project thus aims to design novel, data-driven, biologically inspired, analog sensory devices while also developing new asynchronous event-driven computational paradigms for them. eMorph aims to adapt the computational engine of the cognitive system (its morphology with respect to computation) to the dynamics of the real world rather than furiously sample the physical sensory signals in an attempt to obtain adequate bandwidth. Structure and morphology will be matched to the requirements of the robots body and its application domain with testing to be carried out on the advanced humanoid robotic platform, iCub (project RobotCub, http://www.robotcub.org). The project will assemble a small but focused team of researchers from European leading institutions with well balanced complementary skills around these common goals.


Ucsnik S.,LKR Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen GmbH | Scheerer M.,ARC Seibersdorf Research | Zaremba S.,FACC AG | Pahr D.H.,Vienna University of Technology
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2010

An integrative joining technology between steel and carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP) is presented for lightweight design applications in aviation industries. Small spikes are welded onto metal surfaces via "cold-metal transfer" which then build up a fibre-friendly fixation through form-closure with co-cured composites. Manufacture of such reinforced hybrid specimens and results of static tensile testings are discussed. Video-extensometry is applied to characterize the hybrid joints in terms of strength and failure history. Comparisons with epoxy bonded references show improvements in ultimate load, maximum deformation and energy absorption capacity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cheng M.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Gao H.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhang Y.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Tremel W.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 3 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2011

The formation of ordered complex structures is one of the most challenging fields in the research of biomimic materials because those structures are promising with respect to improving the physical and mechanical properties of man-made materials. In this letter, we have developed a novel approach to fabricating complex structures on the mesoscale by combining magnetic-field-induced locomotion and supramolecular-interaction-assisted immobilization. We have employed a magnetic field to locomote the glass fiber, which was modified by the layer-by-layer self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles, to desired positions and have exploited the supramolecular interaction to immobilize glass fiber onto the appointed position. By magnetically induced micromanipulation, we can drive another fiber across the former one and finally obtain a crossing structure, which can lead to more complex structures on the mesocale. Moreover, we have constructed a mesoscale structure, termed "CHEM", to demonstrate further the application of this method. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Reichel C.,ARC Seibersdorf Research
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein hormone, stimulates the growth of red blood cells and as a consequence it increases tissue oxygenation. This performance enhancing effect is responsible for the ban of erythropioetin in sports since 1990. Especially its recombinant synthesis led to the abuse of this hormone, predominatly in endurance sports. The analytical differentiation of endogenously produced erythropoietin from its recombinant counterpart by using isoelectric focusing and double blotting is a milestone in the detection of doping with recombinant erythropoietin. However, various analogous of the initial recombinant products, not always easily detectable by the standard IEF-method, necessitate the development of analytical alternatives for the detection of EPO doping. The following chapter summarizes its mode of action, the various forms of recombinant erythropoietin, the main analytical procedures and strategies for the detection of EPO doping as well as a typical case report. © 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Horacek M.,ARC Seibersdorf Research | Eisinger E.,ARC Seibersdorf Research | Papesch W.,ARC Seibersdorf Research
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

For the determination of the origin of foods, analysis of the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of the food water often is of great importance, because of the differences in the isotope signature of water between different regions. However, it was reported previously that the changes in δ18O during storage of meat are of such magnitude that existing variations between regions and countries are obscured. We have investigated the δ2H and δ18O changes in meat juice after slaughtering during storage under real cold storage conditions. Our results disagree with a previous publication as we did not observe heavy isotope enrichment of meat juice during industrial cold storages. Additionally we investigated possible changes in δ18O of the meat juice during the roasting process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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