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Stellenbosch, South Africa

Van der Merwe M.,Tshwane University of Technology | Hoffman L.C.,Stellenbosch University | Jooste P.J.,Tshwane University of Technology | Calitz F.J.,ARC Biometry Unit
Meat Science | Year: 2013

Three game meat production systems used on game ranches in South Africa are reported on. System one is applied in the game export market and conforms to the hygiene requirements of the European Union (EU). System two and three entail game meat available on the local market not subjected to any regulation. System 2 however, implemented basic meat hygiene values.Measurements of pH, temperature, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), E. coli, Salmonella and S. aureus were subjected to a 3. ×. 2 factorial analysis of variance with factors that involve 3 system compliances in 2 classes of game animals in a completely randomised design.The measured bacteriological and quality differences between the three systems do not justify EU standards application on the local market but results indicated a significant compliance. ×. class interaction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Van Heerden S.M.,ARC Animal Production Institute | Smith M.F.,ARC Biometry Unit
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The shoulder, loin and leg from P-class pork carcasses were used to determine the nutrient composition of both raw and cooked cuts. Significantly lower fat content were observed in the current study for the leg (5.21 g/100 g) and loin (6.99 g/100 g) compared to the shoulder cut (10.32 g/100 g). The overall percentage fat for all three cuts was less than 10% which is recommended by the South African Heart Mark. The cooked loin cut contained the most protein (27.50 g/100 g) of the three cooked cuts. When compared to other meat products (beef, mutton and chicken) it is clear that pork is a good source of B vitamins, especially vitamin B3. The cooked loin cut contained the least vitamin B1 (0.22 mg/100 g), B2 (0.02 mg/100 g) but the most vitamin B3 (7.09 mg/100 g), of the three cooked cuts. The 100 g cooked shoulder, loin and leg cuts provide on average 40.11% protein, 5.19% magnesium, 3.37% calcium, 24.29% phosphorus, 18.22% zinc, 22.33% iron and 22.50% vitamin B1, 2.57% vitamin B2 and 42.6% vitamin B 3 of Recommended Daily Allowances for males, age 25-50. Energy from a 100 g portion provides 5.81% of the Recommended Daily Allowances. To conclude, the pork cuts are undoubtedly a good source of nutrients that is required for good health because it is high in protein, have a low fat content and are a nutrient-packed choice for the family and compares favourably with the fat, energy, and cholesterol content of many other meats and poultry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


van Niekerk J.M.,Stellenbosch University | Calitz F.J.,ARC Biometry Unit | Halleen F.,ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij | Fourie P.H.,Stellenbosch University | Fourie P.H.,Citrus Research International
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Trunk disease pathogens of grapevines, viz. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Eutypa lata and several species in Botryosphaeriaceae, Phaeoacremonium and Phomopsis are known to infect fresh pruning wounds by means of air-borne inoculum released after rainfall or prolonged periods of high relative humidity. Recent surveys have demonstrated that most or all of these pathogens are present in climatically diverse grape growing regions of South Africa. However, the factors controlling spore dispersal of these pathogens in vineyards were largely unknown. To address this question, spore trapping was done in a Chenin Blanc vineyard in the Stellenbosch area, South Africa, for 14 weeks during the grapevine pruning period from June to mid-September of 2004 and 2005. Hourly recordings of weather data were done by a weather station in the row adjacent to the spore trap. Spores of E. lata and Phomopsis and species in Botryosphaeriaceae were trapped throughout the trapping periods of 2004 and 2005, with higher levels of trapped spores recorded in 2005. The spores of all three pathogens were trapped during or after periods of rainfall and/or high relative humidity. In neither of the 2 years were spores of Pa. chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium spp. trapped. Results indicated that spore event incidence, as well as the amount of spores released during a spore event of above-mentioned pathogens, were governed by rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed prior to and during the spore events. © 2010 KNPV. Source


van Zyl S.A.,Stellenbosch University | Brink J.-C.,Stellenbosch University | Calitz F.J.,ARC Biometry Unit | Coertze S.,Stellenbosch University | And 2 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Spray adjuvants have the potential to improve deposition by effecting uniform distribution of the active ingredient on plant surfaces. In order to study whether such a qualitative improvement of spray deposition would lead to improved disease control, a laboratory experiment was conducted on artificially inoculated grapevine (cv. Chardonnay) leaves. Prior to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea conidia in a spore settling tower, leaves were sprayed to pre-runoff with 1 mL of a mixture of fenhexamid, a fluorescent pigment, and one of 15 selected commercial adjuvants to manipulate the deposition quality of a specific quantity of spray. Following an incubation period of 24 h at high relative humidity, leaf discs were plated onto Petri dishes with paraquat-amended water agar and rated for development of B. cinerea from isolated leaf discs 11 d later. Spray deposition on leaves was assessed with a spray assessment protocol using fluorometry, photomicrography and digital image analyses. B. cinerea incidences on the upper and lower surfaces of water-sprayed leaves averaged 90.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Despite full spray cover of leaves, applications with fenhexamid alone did not completely prevent infection and resulted in 34.6% and 40.8% B. cinerea incidences on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves, respectively. Through the addition of certain adjuvants, B. cinerea incidences were significantly reduced (incidences of 2.9-17.1% and 10.0-30.8%, respectively), while some adjuvants did not differ from the fungicide only treatment, even though they might have improved spray deposition. In a histopathology study using epifluorescence microscopy, distinct differences were observed in conidium mortality (20.5% vs. 31.2%), germination (60.4% vs. 51.4%) and germ tube lengths (27.8 μm vs. 19.7 μm) between Hydrosilicote and Solitaire in combination with fenhexamid, even though both adjuvants effected similar quantitative and qualitative spray deposition. The study clearly demonstrated the potential of adjuvants to improve the bio-efficacy of a fungicide directly through improved deposition on grapevine leaf surfaces, although bio-efficacy might be influenced by adjuvant mode of action in some cases. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Minnaar P.P.,ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij | Booyse M.,ARC Biometry Unit
South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2011

Various factors affect the polyphenol compound concentrations of red grapes. These include cultivar, vineyard location, viticultural practices, microclimate, soil type and winemaking processes. Polyphenol compound concentrations of young and market-ready Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage and Shiraz wines were examined for the purpose of discrimination between grape cultivars. Thirty-five individual polyphenol compounds were quantified using a HPLC-DAD method. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) was used to select a subset of discriminatory variables. In addition, data was grouped and investigated by canonical discriminant analysis, which showed that polyphenol concentrations can be used to discriminate among grape cultivars, young wines and market-ready wines. Flavonol, flavanol and anthocyanin patterns were used as a basis for differentiation of young wines, while flavanols and phenolic acids were used for differentiation of market-ready wines. Discriminant analysis performed at 95% significance level revealed a 100% categorisation of market-ready and young wines in terms of cultivar and 77.85% categorisation of a combination of market-ready and young wines in terms of grape cultivar. This illustrates the validity of polyphenols for studies pertaining to grape cultivar discrimination. Source

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