Arba Minch University is nestled at the foot of Gamo Gofa Mountain ranges facing huge Abaya Lake; set in idyllic surroundings forms the part of East African Rift Valley. Its historical foundation dates back to late 1980s.With an objective to address water-related issues, the then Arba Minch Water Technology Institute was established in September 1979 EC . Then, AWTI used to offer short and long-term trainings; conducting research and rendering consultancy services in water sector.Until 1993, the institute was under Water Resource Commission and then it got transferred to the Ministry of Education. In the wake of nation’s development plan to produce qualified manpower, the aforesaid institute was scaled up to the level of university as Arba Minch University in 2004.The then Commissioner of WRC, Mr Alem Alazar, articulated the initial purpose of the institute was to train a middle level professionals to narrow the gap between the professional position and the low-level technicians. Arba Minch Water Technology Institute started its academic functioning in September 1986 by accepting 181 students in two degree, two advanced diploma and two diploma programs.The main objective of the institute was to produce a skilled and qualified manpower, which is vital for effective utilization and exploitation of water resources of the country for various aspects of development.Among the many specific objectives, the main objectives were to provide theoretical and practical education designed to produce manpower at various levels, to conduct both basic and applied research to ensure the effective utilization of water resources for the development of the country and to prepare, plan and conduct refresher courses in response to the specific training needs as per the demand by various organizations working in the field of water.Academic programs of AWTI in the 1980s and early 90’s were as follow:Certificate programs: Electrical Maintenance Technician course , Hydro-Meteorological Observers’ course, Water wells drillers course , Water Works maintenance course , Water Supply Operators’ course , Motor Mechanics course , Community Participation promotion officers training course , Welders and plumbers training course , Practical Hydrological training course , Trainers training course .Diploma Program: : Special drillers course, Meteorological Observers’ course, Assistant Meteorologist course, Soil Laboratory Technology, Hydrology, Water Treatment Technology.Advance Diploma Program : Irrigation Engineering, Sanitary Engineering, and Hydraulics Engineering. Degree Program : Irrigation Engineering, Hydraulics Engineering, Sanitary Engineering,In 1988, the first 45 batches of students were graduated from AWTI in diploma courses. In the 1989, 47 of the first batches of advanced diploma were also graduated.In September 1997, AWTI was restructured as Arba Minch Technology Institute with the establishment of the following three new departments for degree programs i.e. Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.In 2001, Meteorology Dept. was established with the aim of providing diploma and Post-Graduate degrees. Subsequently Computer Science and IT & Architecture were added.And after 18 years of its establishment and a chequered history, it acquired the status to be up-scaled into full-fledged University. Albeit, the institute to be upgraded as a full-fledged Arba Minch University, will continue to retain its unique set up in Eastern Africa as the centre of excellence for Water Technology.In 2002, the Institute started PG programs in Hydraulics & Hydropower and Irrigation Engineering and additional programs like Hydrology & Water Resource and Meteorology were also started in 2004-5.In 2002-3, the School of Graduate Studies came into being. Later it introduced MSc in Electrical Power Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering and Water Supply and Environmental Engineering. Presently university runs 39 undergraduate, 30 graduate and a PHD programs.Since its establishment, it has achieved several milestones. Rooted to its mission, AMU has proved its inclusiveness by creating equal opportunities in the field of higher education to one and all irrespective gender, religion and culture. Similarly, it has spurred the economic growth of the region by churning out innumerable professionals; wedded to nation’s secular fabric, it fosters unprejudiced religious environment, thereby contributing in the overall development of the nation.Comprehensive researches, particularly focusing on the socio-economic problems of the area where the university is situated are being undertaken.AMU consists of an institute and five colleges which are situated across university’s sprawling five campuses i.e. Main Campus, Abaya, Chamo, Kulfo and Nech Sar.In 2003, College of Business & Economics came into being; College of Social Science & Humanities in 2008-9 and both are situated at Chamo Campus.College of Natural science at Abaya Campus was set up in 2004. College of Agriculture and College of Medicine & Health science were established in 2007 & 2008 respectively; are situated at Nech Sar Campus. Recently College of Agriculture has shifted to new Kulfo Campus.The programmatic status of Institute of Technology & five colleges as follow:As of now, Institute of Technology runs eight departments i.e. Civil & Urban planning Engineering, Architecture & Urban Planning, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Science and Information Technology, Hydraulic Engineering, Water Resources & Irrigation Engineering, Water Supply & Environmental Engineering.College of Natural science has eight departments i.e. Biology, Chemistry, Math, Statistics, Sports Science, Geology, Meteorology & Hydrology and Physics.College of Agriculture’s five departments are Plant Science, Horticulture, Animal Science, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development & Agriculture Extension. All four departments came into being in 2007 whereas Natural Resource Management was established in 2010.College of Medicine & Health science has five departments i.e. Public Health, Nursing & Medical Laboratory science came into being in 2008; while Midwifery and School of Medicine were established in 2009.College of Business & Economics has Accounting and Finance, Management, Economics and Tourism Management departments.College of Social science and Humanities owns Ethiopian Language and Literature , English Language & Literature , Civic and Ethical Studies, Geography and Environmental Studies, Sociology & Social Anthropology, Law, Psychology, History & Heritage Management and Pedagogical unit.Students’ Enrolment: In 1986-87, it had only 176 students, in 1987-88 184 , 1988–89, 234 , 1989–90, 1179 students, in 1990-91, 176 , 1991–92, 150 , 1992–93, 141 , 1993–94, 136 , 1994–95, 140 students.In this academic year 2005-2006 EC, AMU has in all 16548 regular students from across the nation. College-wise figures are given below: IoT is hosting overall 9394 students . College of Natural science has total 1751 students . College of Agriculture is accommodating 730 students . College of Medicine & Health science is having 1198 students . College of Business & Economics has 2389 students . College of Social science & Humanities is hosting 1086 students. PG Students: AMU is hosting 494 students. Weekend and summer PG students: 373 . Continuing & Distance Education : 2049 . Summer category: 3166 students Distance section: 699 students are acquiring education.The university which has come of age is heading towards its mission with sustained overall growth in terms of dispensation of quality in education and amazing rise in students’ enrolment. The ever-increasing services in AMU are being carried out by its well-trained and committed administrative and support 3520 staff members across the campuses.The synchronized teaching-learning process in AMU is being carried out by its huge posse of local instructors 1450 and 96 expatriates staff .If the comparative figures of 1986 in terms of students - 1673 graduates , and after 18 years , it’s 23,329 students, registering ten-fold rise in students’ enrolment speaks volumes about university’s steady progress. Wikipedia.
Adugna D.T.,Arba Minch University
International Breastfeeding Journal | Year: 2014
Background: Breastfeeding is one of the components of Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia a wide range of harmful infant feeding practices has been documented despite the implementation of infant and young child feeding guidelines. However, there is no well documented study of women's perception of breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding (with timely initiation of breastfeeding being within the first hour) in rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Arba Minch Zuria from January to February, 2012. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 383 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 10 key informants. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks.Results: In the rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria almost all mothers (98.2%) have ever breastfed their children. More than three-fourth (89%) of mothers provided colostrum to their infants while others discarded the first milk until the white milk was produced. A large number of mothers (42.8%) started breastfeeding one hour after childbirth. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with lack of maternal education (AOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.02, 3.44). Maternal knowledge about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15, 0.93), attending a primary health education (AOR 0.74; 95% 0.15, 0.98) and health personnel support for women at delivery time (AOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.21, 0.58) were inversely associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices.Conclusions: A large number of mothers (42.8%) were short of the national and global recommendations about breastfeeding initiation. Therefore, sustained health and community based nutritional education is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers to promote optimal breastfeeding for the initiation of breastfeeding practices using health extension workers and local community resource people as key actors. © 2014 Adugna; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Malaju M.T.,Arba Minch University |
Alene G.D.,Health Science University
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2012
Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a very important mode of HIV transmission for children. Well-functioning and accessible health facility and knowledge on mother to child transmission of HIV are a prerequisite for a successful mother to child transmission prevention of HIV. However, the determinant factors of pregnant mothers' knowledge towards mother to child transmission of HIV and its prevention is not well studied in Ethiopia and particularly in the present study area.Methods: Cross-sectional health institution based study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22-August 18, 2011. A total of 400 pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and multiple logistic regression analysis was used.Results: A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 354 (88.5%) of them knew mother to child transmission of HIV and 334(83.5%) of them knew mother to child transmission of HIV is preventable. Having knowledge on mother to child transmission of HIV was positively associated with attending antenatal care visits in hospitals [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 4.49 (1.003, 20.06)], residing in urban areas [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.46 (1.19, 5.09)] and having education level of secondary and above [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 6.85 (1.96, 24.01)], but negatively associated with increased maternal age. Knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV was positively associated with accessibility of health facility [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.16 (1.03, 4.57)], having perceived risk of HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.61 (1.32, 5.17)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.86 (1.41, 5.82)], having education level of secondary and above [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 6.15 (1.75, 21.66)] and residing in urban areas [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 3.62 (1.73, 7.59)] but negatively associated with increased maternal age.Conclusion: Most of the study participants in this study knew that HIV could be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby. There should be well functioning and accessible health facilities with Prevention of mother to child transmission service in the country especially in the rural areas. © 2012 Malaju and Alene; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Assessment of utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling as an intervention for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and associated factors among pregnant women in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia
Malaju M.T.,Arba Minch University |
Alene G.D.,Health Science University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012
Background: Detection of maternal HIV infection early in pregnancy is critical for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Most efforts have focused on VCT as the primary means of encouraging people to become aware of their HIV status. However, its uptake is low in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling provides a critical opportunity to diagnose HIV infection, to begin chronic care, and to prevent mother to child transmission. However, little is known about its acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women in the country and particularly in the present study area. Methods: Health institution based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22- August 18, 2010. A total of 400 pregnant women were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique and multiple logistic regression analysis was employed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 330 (82.5%) of them accepted provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling to be tested for HIV and 70(17.5%) of them refused. Acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling was positively associated with greater number of antenatal care visits [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.64(1.17, 5.95)], residing in the urban areas[Adj. OR (95%CI) = 2.85(1.10, 7.41)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 4.30(1.72, 10.73)], positive partner's reaction for HIV positive result [Adj. OR (95%CI) = 8.19(3.57, 18.80)] and having knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV[Adj. OR (95%CI) = 3.27(1.34, 7.94)], but negatively associated with increased maternal age and education level. Conclusion: Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care was relatively high among pregnant women in Gondar town. Couple counseling and HIV testing should be strengthened to promote provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among male partners and to reduce HIV related violence of women from their partner and access to and consistent use of antenatal care should be improved to increase the uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling service. © 2012 Tilahun and Degu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Gebeyehu Admasu T.,Arba Minch University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2015
This study makes an attempt to explore where? what land use type? causes enormous land use change over time in Hawassa city? It discusses the rate of urban expansion in the study area along historical lines. Besides, it identifies the major actors in urban land use dynamics. Furthermore, it evaluates and discusses the practicability of the 2006 land use plan of the city. The study was primarily carried out in the 3 purposefully selected kebeles of Hawassa city: Dato, Tilte and Fara. Primary data was obtained from 200 surveyed households which were proportionally distributed to the study kebeles; semi-structured interviews which were carried out with 16 key informants and through field observation. Secondary data was collected by reviewing published and unpublished documents [Image and written]. Data was analyzed quantitatively [using ratios, percentages] and qualitatively [thematic description of issues]. Besides, GIS and ERDAS Imagine software were employed to analyze image data. The study revealed abnormal informal land market as the major cause for land use change. Lack of well-documented land information systems; unfair access to formal land; and lack of formal land allocation were underlined to be the major reasons for the proliferation of informality [mainly causing land use change in the urban fringe]. Infill development has signified efficient utilization of land; nevertheless, it resulted in unexpected evictions and disturbing of the scenic urban fabric. Farmers eviction from their holdings with little or no compensation in the urban fringe; the use of urban green areas for housing and offices development within the city; and environmental sanitation problems due to congested settlement were conceived as challenges. The study revealed about nine (9) land use types from the 2006 land use plan of the city, nevertheless; there exists disparity between planning and its implementation. Therefore, local land managers should give due emphasis to mitigate informal land market, its actors and the associated problems through appropriate policy intervention: developing land information systems; awareness creation among actors of land use [farmers, speculators, brokers and the people at large]; promoting urban good governance; and community participation at the local level. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Manilal A.,Arba Minch University |
Idhayadhulla A.,Yeungnam University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To explore the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Holigarna arnottiana ( H. arnottiana) against human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and use GC-MS analysis to elucidate its antimicrobial principles. Methods: In the present study, organic extract of H. arnottiana was examined for in vitro antimicrobial potency against five clinical human pathogens, seven species of human type culture pathogens, six pathogenic Vibrio strains isolated from moribund tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) and seven type cultures (Microbial Type Culture Collection, MTCC) of prominent shrimp pathogens. Results: The extraction of H. arnottiana with ethyl acetate yielded bioactive crude extract that efficiently repressed the growth of all tested pathogens. Among the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogens were the most susceptible organisms while clinical pathogens were found to be a little resistant. The chemical constituents of the H. arnottiana were analysed by GC-MS which revealed the presence of major compounds such as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-o1 (42.1%), 1-lodo-2-methylundecane (34.5%) and squalene (11.1%) which might have a functional role in the chemical defence against microbial invasion. Conclusions: Based on the finding it could be inferred that H. arnottiana would be a reliable source for developing shrimp and human bio-therapeutics in future. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.
Ayana M.,Arba Minch University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011
Deficit irrigation is becoming an important strategy to reduce agricultural water use in arid and semiarid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2007 to examine the effect of deficit irrigation on the yield performance of maize crop under Arba Minch (Ethiopia) condition. Based on four phonological growth stages (establishment, vegetative, flowering and grain-filling stages) of maize, the crop was subjected to water deficit during one, two or three growth stages. The highest yield obtained was 5.933 tons/ha and the lowest was 3.467 tons/ha. Treatments that were water stressed during single growth stages such as first and second as well as consecutively during two stages, that is, first and second growth stages produced yields that are not significantly different from the yield achieved under fully irrigated treatment. Compared to the maximum yield, 29 to 42% lower yields were registered under treatments that were subjected to water deficit during three growth stages. Not only frequency of water deficit periods but also its timing was found to have effect on the final yield. Treatments which were stressed during two growth stages had 2.2 (0011) to 38.5% (1010) yield reduction compared to the maximum yield. The highest yield reduction was observed under the treatment which was irrigated only during the fourth growth stage (0001), followed by treatment irrigated during first and third growth stages (1010) and then treatments irrigated only during second stage (0100). This shows that prolonged deficit over three growing stages will have more yield reduction impacts. Plots stressed during third and fourth growth stages were found to produce lower yields indicating the severe effects of water stress during flowering (tasseling and silking) and early grain-filling stages on yield. The comparison of water savings achieved under different treatments that had no significant differences in yield level from full irrigated plot (1111I) ranged from 18.2% (treatments 0111 and 1011) to 36.4% (0011). This indicates that water deficit during first and second growth stages had no significant effect on the grain yield of corn and it is worthwhile to save irrigation water under this condition. The water use efficiency increased with decreasing water supply and increasing yield level. Irrigation water use efficiency increased with decreasing water supply and related yield which may not be desirable from farmers' perspective. ©2011 Academic Journals.
Mengistu D.T.,Arba Minch University |
Mengistu D.T.,University of Bergen |
Sorteberg A.,University of Bergen
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2012
The hydrological model SWAT was run with daily station based precipitation and temperature data for the whole Eastern Nile basin including the three subbasins: the Abbay (Blue Nile), BaroAkobo and Tekeze. The daily and monthly streamflows were calibrated and validated at six outlets with station-based streamflow data in the three different subbasins. The model performed very well in simulating the monthly variability while the validation against daily data revealed a more diverse performance. The simulations indicated that around 60% of the average annual rainfalls of the subbasins were lost through evaporation while the estimated runoff coefficients were 0.24, 0.30 and 0.18 for Abbay, BaroAkobo and Tekeze subbasins, respectively. About half to two-thirds of the runoff could be attributed to surface runoff while the other contributions came from groundwater. Twenty hypothetical climate change scenarios (perturbed temperatures and precipitation) were conducted to test the sensitivity of SWAT simulated annual streamflow. The result revealed that the annual streamflow sensitivity to changes in precipitation and temperature differed among the basins and the dependence of the response on the strength of the changes was not linear. On average the annual streamflow responses to a change in precipitation with no temperature change were 19%, 17%, and 26% per 10% change in precipitation while the average annual streamflow responses to a change in temperature and no precipitation change were -4.4% K -1, -6.4% K -1, and -1.3% K -1 for Abbay, BaroAkobo and Tekeze river basins, respectively. 47 temperature and precipitation scenarios from 19 AOGCMs participating inCMIP3 were used to estimate future changes in streamflow due to climate changes. The climate models disagreed on both the strength and the direction of future precipitation changes. Thus, no clear conclusions could be made about future changes in the Eastern Nile streamflow. However, such types of assessment are important as they emphasise the need to use several an ensemble of AOGCMs as the results strongly dependent on the choice of climate models. © Author(s) 2012.
Godana W.,Arba Minch University
Rural and remote health | Year: 2013
Diarrhoea kills more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined. Knowing the determinants of a disease enables us to design an effective intervention. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of acute diarrhoea and associated factors among children under 5 years of age in Derashe district, south Ethiopia. A community based unmatched case-control study supplemented with Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) was employed in rural kebeles (neighborhoods) of the district. Collected data were entered in Epi Info v3.5.3 (wwwn.cdc.gov/epiinfo/info/) and descriptive data analyses were performed using SPSS v16.0 (www.spss.com). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between dependent and independent variables, calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical significance was set at α ≤0.05. Multivariable analyses were applied to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variable. The study revealed that the occurrence of diarrhoea was significantly associated with lack of latrine ownership (adjusted [A] OR: 2.43, CI:1.19-4.87), lack of home-based water treatment (AOR: 2.25, CI:1.43-3.56), lack of improved water sources (AOR: 1.98, CI:1.16- 2.23) and consumption of left-over food (AOR: 1.65, CI:1.01-2.71). The determinants of acute diarrhoea were of high preventive value (latrine ownership, availability of home-based water treatment, source of water and consumption of left-over food stored at room temperature), therefore health education on different mechanisms in diarrhoeal disease causation, and prevention methods, is recommended.
Malaju M.T.,Arba Minch University |
Asale G.A.,Arba Minch University
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2013
Background: HIV/AIDS is the major problem and an obstacle to both the health and development of people in Ethiopia today. It is also indicated that the use of substances have dramatically increased despite the serious concern about HIV infection. Methods. Unmatched case control study was conducted in South West Ethiopia using a sample of 105 cases and 305 controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. Result: HIV infection was positively associated with being in the age of 20 - 24 years [OR & (95% CI) = 2.892 (1.266, 6.607)], being female [OR & (95% CI) = 2.013 (1.061, 3.822)], alcohol use [OR & (95% CI) = 5.883 (3.034, 11.408)], having no education [OR & (95% CI) = 3.193 (1.523, 6.695)] and primary education level [OR & (95% CI) = 3.160 (1.351, 7.388)]. Early sexual initiation was also positively associated with being not employed Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.372 (1.455, 37.357)], not having comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 8.247 (2.121, 32.067)], alcohol use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 3.815 (1.315, 11.070)] and khat use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.241 (1.871, 28.016)]. Conclusion: Strategies should be designed to control the use of alcohol and khat which were found to be predictors of HIV infection and early sexual initiation in this study. © 2013 Tilahun and Asale; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Hailu D.,Arba Minch University |
Berhe H.,Mekelle University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Background: In many developing countries including Ethiopia, maternal morbidity and mortality still pose a substantial burden and thus progress towards the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) remains slow. Raising awareness of women about the danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth is the first essential step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric care. However, in Ethiopia little is known about the knowledge level of mothers about obstetric danger signs. The objective of this study was to assess the status of knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth among mothers who gave birth in the past two years prior to the survey in Tsegedie district, Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 20, 2012 to June 30, 2013 on a randomly selected sample of 485 women who had at least one delivery in the past two years. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were utilized to supplement the Quantitative data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software. Result: Four hundred eighty five mothers participated in the study making a response rate of 100%. Vaginal bleeding was the most commonly mentioned danger signs of pregnancy (49.1%) and childbirth (52.8%). Two hundred eighty five (58.8%) and 299 (61.6%) of respondents mentioned at least two danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth respectively. One hundred seventy (35.1%) and 154 (31.8%) of respondents didn't know any danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth respectively. Educational status of the mother, place of delivery and having functional radio were found to be independent predictors of knowledge of women about the danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth. Conclusion: Educational status of the mother, place of delivery and having functional radio were independently associated with knowledge of women about obstetric danger signs. Thus, provision of information, education and communication targeting women, family and the general community on danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth and associated factors was recommended. © 2014 Hailu, Berhe.