Farkhani S.M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences |
Valizadeh A.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences |
Karami H.,Arak University of Medical Sciences |
Mohammadi S.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Peptides | Year: 2014
Efficient delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic molecules to the cells and tissues is a difficult challenge. The cellular membrane is very effective in its role as a selectively permeable barrier. While it is essential for cell survival and function, also presents a major barrier for intracellular delivery of cargo such as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. In recent years, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), that are relatively short cationic and/or amphipathic peptides, received great attention as efficient cellular delivery vectors due to their intrinsic ability to enter cells and mediate uptake of a wide range of macromolecular cargo such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), small interfering RNA (siRNAs), drugs, and nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers. This review discusses the various uptake mechanisms of these peptides. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in the use of CPP for the efficient delivery of nanoparticles, nanocarriers, DNA, siRNA, and anticancer drugs to the cells. In addition, we have been highlighting new results for improving endosomal escape of CPP-cargo molecules. Finally, pH-responsive and activable CPPs for tumor-targeting therapy have been described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani R.,Arak University of Medical Sciences |
Khataee A.R.,University of Tabriz |
Safari M.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences |
Joo S.W.,Yeungnam University
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of immobilized nanosized bio-silica (average crystalline size of 20nm) within chitosan as a nanocomposite adsorbent for removing Acid Red 88 (AR88) in aqueous phase. As result, the amount of adsorbed AR88 (mgg-1) was increased with increasing reaction time and adsorbate concentration and decreasing temperature and initial pH. A rapid increment in the adsorption was happened with increasing adsorbent dosage from 1 to 3gl-1, while further increment in the adsorbent dosage resulted in an insignificant increase in the adsorption (1.66mgg-1). The kinetic study was performed and the results indicated the suitability of pseudo-second order kinetic model (R2=0.994). Besides, the correlation coefficient of Elovich model confirmed chemical nature of the adsorption (R2=0.9756). The fitness of experimental data to the intra-particle diffusion model demonstrated that the adsorption process occurred via a multi-step mechanism. But, the intra-particle diffusion was not the sole rate-limiting stage. According to the Langmuir isotherm model (R2=0.9962), the maximum adsorption capacity of bio-silica/chitosan nanocomposite for sequestering AR88 was about 25.84mgg-1. In addition, negative δG° and δH° values obtained through thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption of AR88 onto nanocomposite was simultaneous and exothermic in nature, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani R.,Arak University of Medical Sciences |
Rezaee A.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Khataee A.,University of Tabriz
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2013
The aim of this work was to enhance the efficiency of a photocatalytic process involving carbon black (CB)-modified ZnO nanoparticles using an electrochemical process consisting of powdered activated carbon (PAC), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and CB-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-coated gas-diffusion cathode (GDC) to degrade Acid Red 18. Hydrogen peroxide generated by PAC-PTFE-, CNT-PTFE-, and CB-PTFE-coated GDC was 58.45, 100.9, and 112.3 μM, respectively. The efficiency of the combined process equipped with CB-PTFE-coated GDC was assessed as the function of different operational parameters. With the increase of initial pH from 3 to 10, decolorization efficiency decreased from 94.5% to 57.61%. Increasing the dye concentration from 2 to 20 mg/L led to a decrease in the decolorization efficiency from 100% to 50.45%. The increase of the current intensity from 30 to 300 mA resulted in increasing decolorization efficiency from 37.45% to 95.31%. TOC analysis showed 51.13% mineralization of 10 mg/L dye solution in 20 min. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Hezaveh M.S.,Arak University of Medical Sciences
Global journal of health science | Year: 2014
Unpreparedness of novice nurses during the process of transition to their professional role can has broad consequences for the nurse and health care system and leads to reduction of the quality of patient care. This study has been carried out with the aim of investigating the experiences of the unpreparedness of novice nurses. This study was conducted qualitatively by using conventional content analysis. Participants were 21 persons including 17 novice nurses, 2 supervisors, and 2 experienced nurses who were selected through purposeful sampling from four hospitals dependent on Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Participants' experiences were reflected in three main themes of "functional disability", "communicative problems", and "managerial challenges". Each of these dimensions consisted of several sub-categories. These areas had represented the inability to apply the learned knowledge in practice. The sensitivity of health system, especially, educational mentors and nursing managers to create preparation in novice nurses by providing appropriate orientation programs at the beginning of work and the revision and amendment of nursing curriculum can solve this problem to some extent.
Moini A.,Arak University of Medical Sciences |
Azimi G.,Shahed University |
Farivar A.,Arak University of Medical Sciences
Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research | Year: 2012
Purpose: Statins are known as cholesterol-lowering agents, but have been suggested for the treatment of asthma because of their anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the potential therapeutic effects of atorvastatin were investigated in asthmatic patients. Methods: A total of 62 patients with persistent mild to moderate asthma who presented at asthma clinics of Arak University of Medical Sciences were recruited in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. The asthma clinical control score was assessed based on the standardized Asthma Control Test. Lung volume, i.e., percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) and percentage of forced vital capacity (FVC%), and peripheral blood eosinophils were also measured. The intervention group was treated with atorvastatin 40 mg per day for 8 weeks, while the control group received a placebo. Asthma controller treatments were not changed. At the beginning and end of the study, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured to evaluate adherence of the patients to the treatment. Results: The asthma control score did not significantly differ between the intervention and control groups (P=0.06). Difference in FEV1%, FVC%, and blood eosinophil count between the intervention and control groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The differences in post-treatment cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significant (P<0.05). Conclusions:Our study shows that atorvastatin is not effective in the treatment of persistent mild to moderate asthma. © The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology.