SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011
A method to calculate the Natural frequency of the Timing belt drive is developed and validated. Timing belt drives are widely used in the automotive engines for valve actuation drives where accurate motion and force transmission is utmost necessary. Natural frequency is an important parameter to understand the vibration behavior of a system. Previous studies have found the Natural frequency and frequency response of the timing belt with experimental method and with FEA/ MBD software. In this study attempt has been made to develop a tool which will require basic material properties to calculate the natural frequency. Complete timing belt drive system is divided into set of standard components/elements. The belt tooth is divided in four layers and stiffness calculation is based on apparent modulus of elasticity derived from form factor. For belt pulley tooth analogy with cantilever beam is used. The model can be used for trapezoidal shaped timing belt as well as for other forms of the tooth. The belt drive level mathematical model is developed by calculating the equivalent system properties from the individual element properties. In order to reduce computational efforts a MATLAB based tool is developed. The validation is done by comparing the mathematical model with the experimental data. The predicted value from the mathematical model and experimental values are in close agreement. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.
Jain A.,ARAI |
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel which is made through a chemical process which converts vegetable oils and fats of natural origin into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The most usual method to transform Bio-oil into biodiesel is Transesterification that can be carried out using different catalyst systems. Jatropha is second generation, non-edible oil and can be used for producing biodiesel. The Transesterification reaction consists of heating jatropha oil with proper concentration of methanol at appropriate temperature in the presence of catalyst. After reaction, the mixture is allowed to settle down for 8-10 hrs. Two separate layers, top layer of biodiesel and lower layer of glycerol will form, which can be separated. Reaction temperature, amount of methanol, catalyst and reaction time are important parameters which decide yield and quality of biodiesel. Apart from these, the free fatty acids (FFA) content of jatropha oil plays important role in deciding yield of biodiesel. Jatropha oil with less than 2% FFA is most preferred for transesterification, generally known as one-step process Whereas Jatropha oil with FFA value more than 2% is needed to be neutralised before performing trans-esterification, which is known as two-step process. Various set of experiments are conducted in order to optimize these parameters and it is concluded that reaction is best with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol in the presence of 1% (wt of oil) KOH catalyst for 90 minutes reaction time at 60OC temperature for optimized results. Further post processing steps like separation, washing and heating is done to get final Biodiesel. This study compares one-step and two-step processes of producing biodiesel in which one-step process results 34% increment in Biodiesel yield than two-step process. One-step process has 96% biodiesel yield efficiency. This increment in efficiency is due to proper heat treatment and also better seeds quality. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.
Jawale P.,ARAI |
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017
Urbanisation has led to an increased need for mobility in public transportation. Sensing the unfolding worrisome scenario, many countries have taken up different mass rapid transit solutions to alleviate the problem and restore the free flowing traffic. BRT should have been the logical choice particularly considering the lower capital costs involved and faster implementation. Comprehensibly the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in term of quality and comfort to the passengers. Level of vibration and noise is an important indicator to evaluate vehicle's ride comfort. The challenges are to design the high powered Powertrain and Air Conditioning system nonetheless low interior noise, vibration and harshness correspondents to personal cars. This paper is an invention of, development work done in interior noise refinement of a bus. A prototype bus manufactured to meet all the requirement of BRT - premium segment urban bus. The prototype was almost meeting the entire required specifications, excluding interior noise and vibrations. The rear zone of the interior was the major concern of NVH levels, which demands to carry out the root cause analysis. There were various structure-borne and air-borne sources contributing to increase in NVH levels. Design and development iterations were conducted on the vehicle to achieve the well significant noise and vibration reduction and increased comfort to the passengers. Copyright © 2017 SAE International.
News Article | November 1, 2016
MIGDAL HAEMEK, Israel, CHELMSFORD, England and ARAI, Japan, Nov. 01, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TowerJazz, the global specialty foundry leader, and e2v, the global innovator of imaging solutions, have today announced that e2v’s standard and custom CMOS image sensor solutions are now available with a newly developed generation of global shutter pixels. This advanced solution has been developed by TowerJazz at TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co. (TPSCo), made possible by its long heritage and proven experience in imaging technology. Working together, e2v and TowerJazz have used their combined expertise to leverage this new technology and accelerate its availability to the market within a rapid time frame. TPSCo’s ability to produce premium quality image sensors enabled TowerJazz to develop a significantly smaller global shutter pixel. e2v then integrated this new technology into its state-of-the-art industrial sensors. This innovation offers highly optimized electro-optical performance with impressively low dark current noise characteristics. This solution is the world’s smallest global shutter pixel, on a 110nm technology node with extremely high shutter efficiency. It will also serve next generation industrial and 3D gesture recognition market segments. The new technology platform from TowerJazz will be transferred from Arai, Japan to Migdal Haemek, Israel to support large sensors and stitching, providing dual sourcing to its growing customer base. The overall image sensor market is predicted to be worth 17.5 billion USD by 20201 and this new product offering will enable e2v and TowerJazz to capitalize on this market growth. François Thouret, President of Professional Imaging at e2v, said, “Our successful relationship with TowerJazz extends over 10 years. We are very proud to be the leading customer partnering with them and TPSCo to bring this innovative imaging solution to the market. In a fast changing and demanding industry, the availability of this groundbreaking technology is a key milestone to ensure our standard and custom solutions fulfill the current and future needs of our customers.” Dr. Avi Strum, TowerJazz Senior VP and General Manager of CMOS Image Sensor Business Unit, said, “We are very pleased to have collaborated with e2v to produce the first sensor in the world with pixels as small as 2.8um. e2v has been a strong and dedicated partner to TowerJazz. Its exceptional capabilities in CMOS sensor design technology help deliver the best results from our leading process technology, allowing us both to gain market share in this innovative and competitive market.” e2v’s standard and custom CMOS image sensors will be exhibited at VISION, Messe Stuttgart, Germany on November 8-10, 2016. Visit the team in booth E-17. TowerJazz and TPSCo will be exhibiting at VISION, Messe Stuttgart, Germany on November 8-10, 2016 in booth 1I82. About e2v Bringing life to technology, e2v partners with its customers to improve, save and protect people’s lives. e2v’s innovations lead developments in automation, healthcare, communications, safety, discovery and the environment. e2v’s CMOS, CCD and EM image sensors, line scan cameras, camera modules and subsystems deliver high performance across many applications. e2v’s unique approach involves listening to the market and application challenges of customers and partnering with them to provide innovative standard, semi-custom or fully custom imaging solutions, bringing increased value to their systems. e2v employs approximately 1750 people worldwide, has design and operational facilities across Europe, North America and Asia, and has a global network of sales and technical support offices. e2v has annual sales of GB236M as at 31 March 2016 and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. For more information www.e2v.com. About TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co. TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co., Ltd. (TPSCo) was established by Panasonic Corporation (NASDAQ ADS:PCRFY) (TYO:6752), 51% of which was acquired by Tower Semiconductor Ltd. (NASDAQ:TSEM) (TASE:TSEM) and 49% of which is now held by Panasonic Semiconductor Solutions Co., Ltd. TPSCo has three manufacturing facilities in Hokuriku, Japan which have been producing large scale integrated circuits for over 30 years. Areas of process technology focus include: high dynamic range image sensors (CIS and CCD), integrated power devices (BCD, SOI, and LDMOS) and high frequency silicon RFCMOS. With over 120 qualified silicon process flows on 200mm and 300mm wafers from super micron to 45nm as well as internal back end processing, assembly and test services, TPSCo provides both IDMs and fabless companies with unparalleled semiconductor manufacturing quality and technology, including in-house turnkey services. For more information, please visit www.tpsemico.com/. About TowerJazz Tower Semiconductor Ltd. (NASDAQ:TSEM) (TASE:TSEM) and its fully owned U.S. subsidiary Jazz Semiconductor, Inc. operate collectively under the brand name TowerJazz, the global specialty foundry leader. TowerJazz manufactures integrated circuits, offering a broad range of customizable process technologies including: SiGe, BiCMOS, mixed-signal/CMOS, RF CMOS, CMOS image sensor, integrated power management (BCD and 700V), and MEMS. TowerJazz also provides a world-class design enablement platform for a quick and accurate design cycle as well as Transfer Optimization and development Process Services (TOPS) to IDMs and fabless companies that need to expand capacity. For more information, please visit www.towerjazz.com To provide multi-fab sourcing and extended capacity for its customers, TowerJazz operates two manufacturing facilities in Israel (150mm and 200mm), one in the U.S. (200mm) and three additional facilities in Japan (two 200mm and one 300mm) through TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co. (TPSCo), established with Panasonic Corporation of which TowerJazz has the majority holding. Through TPSCo, TowerJazz provides leading edge 45nm CMOS, 65nm RF CMOS and 65nm 1.12um pixel technologies, including the most advanced image sensor technologies. For more information, please visit www.tpsemico.com. Safe Harbor Regarding Forward-Looking Statements This press release includes forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual results may vary from those projected or implied by such forward-looking statements. A complete discussion of risks and uncertainties that may affect the accuracy of forward-looking statements included in this press release or which may otherwise affect TowerJazz’s business is included under the heading "Risk Factors" in Tower’s most recent filings on Forms 20-F, F-3, F-4 and 6-K, as were filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and the Israel Securities Authority and Jazz’s most recent filings on Forms 10-K and 10-Q, as were filed with the SEC, respectively. Tower and Jazz do not intend to update, and expressly disclaim any obligation to update, the information contained in this release.
News Article | April 2, 2016
The recent emission scandals committed by Volkswagen has caused the company to recall 3,877 units of Vento Sedans in India. In a report, Volkswagen released a statement saying that its India-based branch will be suspending production of the "manual gearbox" variant of the Volkswagen Vento that holds a 1.5L, or .396 gallon, diesel tank. In a recent investigation carried out by the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), the tests found that Volkswagen Vento Sedans were emitting intermittent carbon monoxide (CO) levels that failed ARAI standards. CO emissions of the vehicle were sometimes exceeding the threshold limits, according to the Conformity of Production (COP) test carried out by ARAI. A Volkswagen executive had previously announced in February that Volkswagen cars were manufactured in compliance with emission laws carried out in India. The results of the tests run by ARAI, however, say otherwise. Volkswagen Passenger Board Member of Sales and Marketing Jurgen Stackmann guaranteed that all Volkswagen-produced cars followed the standards in India, while he apologized for the failed results their cars produced. The company has promised to analyze the issues causing the inconsistent CO emissions and plans to submit succeeding resolutions to the ARAI as soon as possible. These resolutions will be applied to all affected Vento Sedans that have already been bought by customers. They further added that the issue "is not connected to the global NOx emissions topic," wherein several pending investigations and court orders are currently looking into Volkswagen. The Vento 1.5TDI, along with several other DSG automatic transmission variants and diesel Polo models by Volkswagen India are not part of the halted productions. These vehicles have been certified by the company to meet the norms in India and are "technically safe and trustworthy." The said models will continue to be produced and sold in the country.
Mhaskar C.A.,Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. |
Marathe N.V.,ARAI |
Arumugam S.K.,Vellore Institute of Technology
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
For meeting upcoming BS IV & BS V emission norms in Heavy Commercial Vehicles, most of the manufacturers are taking SCR after treatment route. Though SCR system is more complex and involves higher cost impact, an optimized SCR system can bring down the payback period to about one year due to improved fuel economy. For development of an SCR after treatment system, selection of a correct SCR catalyst and its position in the system is very important. NOX conversion efficiency of catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature at the catalyst and the velocity distribution over the face of the catalyst. Generally catalysts are evaluated for the conversion efficiency in engine test bed. In a drive to have a first-time-right solution, a CFD analysis was carried out considering the low and high flow rate conditions. CFD simulation models and the corresponding results were used as a predictive tool in the exhaust system development process. These simulations helped to evaluate design proposals before finalizing the design. Prototype exhaust system components were developed for the best design proposal considering exhaust gas temperature profile, velocity distribution, pressure drop, and conversion efficiency of coated and extruded catalysts. This approach significantly reduced the prototype development and evaluation time. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.
Padmanaban S.,Advanced Tyre Research |
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015
The tire is generally characterized on the basis of forces and moments being generated at the contact patch, which describes the friction potential of the tire in both longitudinal and lateral directions at different load conditions. The field conditions and applications under which the tires (especially commercial one) perform is diverse, which results in varied performance for the same product. To understand this there is a need to recognize the range of friction values the tire undergoes in different conditions. Though there are couple of methods and indoor test available to estimate the available friction potential, they are not only deficient in replicating the different real road scenarios but also prove difficult to reproduce different road surfaces. There is also a lack of availability and expense of out door test equipment in India. A joint project has been undertaken between Apollo Tyres and ARAI, where both have used their technical expertise to work on tire characterization out of road test. A slip-based test approach has been carried out to estimate the available longitudinal tire-road friction potential using the longitudinal slip and forces generated at the tire contact patch during a braking test. The test vehicle was instrumented with wheel force sensors, to measure forces being developed in the tires, along with brake sensors and steering wheel sensors to monitor the amount of brake applied and avoid any lateral slippage. The braking test was carried out by varying speed and load conditions. The measured data was then analyzed to find out the longitudinal friction potential. It was observed that the longitudinal friction potential decreases with increase in both load and speed. This paper discuss the findings of this work carried out and also on development of generic methodology to measure and estimate the friction potential of tire using wheel force transducer in on-road testing. This methodology can be used for further on-the-field testing and evaluation of tires for research. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.
Arai | Date: 2010-07-21
A combustion system, a combustion method and a fuel fluid, which can improve combustion efficiency of fuel while suppressing consumption of the fuel when the fuel is combusted, are provided as well as a method for producing the fuel fluid and an apparatus for producing the fuel fluid are provided. A combustion system 100 includes an electrolyzed water producing section 110 which electrolyzes water to produce electrolyzed water; a hydrogen mixing section 120 which mixes the electrolyzed water, which is produced in the electrolyzed water producing section 110 and in which hydrogen is dissolved, and gaseous hydrogen generated in the electrolyzed water producing section 110 with each other; a fuel storage section 30 which stores fuel therein; a fuel mixing section 140 which mixes the electrolyzed water, which is produced in the electrolyzed water producing section 110 and in which hydrogen is dissolved, and the fuel stored in the fuel storage section with each other; a mist forming section 150 which forms a mixed liquid obtained in the fuel mixing section 140 into mist; and a combustion section 160 which combusts the mist produced in the mist forming section 150.
Arai | Date: 2010-04-28
Disclosed is an electrolyzed water manufacturing method and electrolyzed water manufacturing device capable of producing efficiently weakly acidic through weakly alkaline electrolyzed water, and capable of producing said electrolyzed water on a large scale. The electrolyzed water manufacturing device 10 comprises: an anode chamber 20 that is provided with an anode electrode 22; a cathode chamber 30 that is provided with a cathode electrode 32; a middle chamber 40 for containing an aqueous electrolytic solution, disposed between the anode chamber 20 and the cathode chamber 30; an anion exchange membrane 24 for partitioning between the anode chamber 20 and the middle chamber 40; and a cation exchange membrane 34 for partitioning between the cathode chamber 30 and the middle chamber 40. The anode chamber 20 and the cathode chamber 30 are connected by a connecting hole 52 provided in a partitioning wall 50.
Arai | Date: 2016-03-19
Downloadable computer software applications for mobile phones and handheld tablet computer devices, namely, software for use in providing an interactive educational learning experience for children wherein children can speak, ask questions, and provide statements and said software application will provide answers via an Artificial Intelligence platform; Downloadable computer software applications for mobile phones, handheld tablet computer, and smartwatch devices, namely, software for use in assisting children with studying, homework, and developing communication and leadership skills through interactive experiences with an Artificial Intelligence platform; Downloadable computer software applications for mobile phones, handheld tablet computer, and smartwatch devices, namely, software for providing assistance to children with studying, homework, and developing communication and leadership skills; Downloadable computer software applications for mobile phones, handheld tablet computer, and smartwatch devices, namely, software for use in providing parents of children with access to information and analysis regarding their childrens learning and development skills and habits. Educational services, namely, providing online instruction in the fields of math, science, reading, history, music, and foreign languages; Educational services, namely, providing online, non-downloadable videos in the fields of math, science, reading, history, music, and foreign languages; Educational services, namely, providing an online interactive quizzes to test childrens learning after viewing and reading educational content. Providing temporary use of online-only, non-downloadable Software as a Service (SaaS) services featuring software for use in providing an interactive educational learning experience for children wherein children can speak, ask questions, and provide statements and said software application will provide answers via an Artificial Intelligence platform; Providing temporary use of online-only, non-downloadable Software as a Service (SaaS) services featuring software for use in assisting children with studying, homework, and developing communication and leadership skills through interactive experiences with an Artificial Intelligence platform; Providing temporary use of online-only, non-downloadable Software as a Service (SaaS) services featuring software for use in providing assistance to children with studying, homework, and developing communication and leadership skills; Providing temporary use of online-only, non-downloadable Software as a Service (SaaS) services featuring software for use in providing parents of children with access to information and analysis regarding their childrens learning and development skills and habits; Application service provider featuring software for artificial intelligence methods, natural language processing, natural language understanding, dialog systems, voice and speech recognition and text to speech systems, natural language human-machine interfaces and predictive assistance technologies.