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Malo S.,University of Zaragoza | Jose Rabanaque M.,University of Zaragoza | Feja C.,Aragones Institute of Health science | Jesus Lallana M.,Pharmacy Service in Primary Health Care | And 2 more authors.
Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Heavy antibiotic users are those individuals with the highest exposure to antibiotics. They play an important role as contributors to the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance. We applied different methods to identify and characterize the group of heavy antibiotic users in Spain as well as their exposure to antibiotics. Data on outpatient prescribing of antimicrobials (ATC J01) in 2010 were obtained from a prescription database covering Aragón (northeastern Spain). The antimicrobial consumption at the individual level was analysed both according to the volume of DDD and the number of packages purchased per year. Heavy antibiotic users were identified according to Lorenz curves and characterized by age, gender, and their antimicrobial prescription profile. Lorenz curves demonstrated substantial differences in the individual use of antimicrobials. Heavy antibiotic users (5% of individuals with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial risk of the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, and interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics should therefore primarily be targeted children and elderly people. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society). Source


Garcia-Martin E.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Martin E.,Aragones Institute of Health science | Larrosa J.M.,University of Zaragoza | Larrosa J.M.,Aragones Institute of Health science | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose To evaluate the thickness of the 10 retinal layers in the paramacular area of Parkinson disease patients using a new segmentation technology of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to examine whether the thickness of specific layers predicts neurodegeneration or Parkinson disease severity. Design Observational prospective study. Methods Parkinson disease patients (n = 129) and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 129) were enrolled. The Spectralis OCT system was used to automatically segment all retinal layers in a parafoveal scan using the new segmentation application prototype. Mean thickness of each layer was calculated and compared between Parkinson disease patients and healthy subjects, and between Parkinson disease patients with disease durations of less than or at least 10 years. A correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the association between retinal layer thickness, duration of disease, and Parkinson disease severity. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the most sensitive layer for predicting axonal atrophy. Results Parkinson disease patients showed statistically significant reduced thickness in the retinal nerve fiber, ganglion cell, inner plexiform, and outer plexiform layers and increased thickness in the inner nuclear layer compared with healthy subjects (P <.05). The inner retinal layers were more affected in Parkinson disease patients with long disease duration. The ganglion cell layer thickness was inversely correlated with disease duration and Parkinson disease severity, and was predictive of axonal damage in Parkinson disease patients. Conclusions The segmentation application of the Spectralis OCT revealed retinal layer atrophy in Parkinson disease patients, especially in the inner layers of patients with long disease duration. Ganglion cell layer reduction was associated with increased axonal damage. © 2014 BY ELSEVIER INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Source


Garcia-Martin E.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Martin E.,Aragones Institute of Health science | Polo V.,University of Zaragoza | Polo V.,Aragones Institute of Health science | And 15 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose To evaluate the thickness of the 10 retinal layers in the paramacular area of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with healthy subjects using the new segmentation technology of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). To examine which layer has better sensitivity for detecting neurodegeneration in patients with MS. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants Patients with MS (n = 204) and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 138). Methods The Spectralis OCT system (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) was used to obtain automated segmentation of all retinal layers in a parafoveal scan in 1 randomly selected eye of each participant, using the new segmentation application prototype. Main Outcome Measures The thicknesses of 512 parafoveal points in the 10 retinal layers were obtained in each eye, and the mean thickness of each layer was calculated and compared between patients with MS and healthy subjects. The analysis was repeated, comparing patients with MS with and without previous optic neuritis. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the association between each retinal layer mean thickness, duration of disease, and functional disability in patients with MS. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which layer provided better sensitivity for detecting neurodegeneration in patients with MS. Results All retinal layers, except the inner limiting membrane, were thinner in patients with MS compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Greater effects were observed in the inner retinal layers (nerve fiber, ganglion cells, inner plexiform, and inner nuclear layers) of eyes with previous optic neuritis (P < 0.05). The retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer thicknesses were inversely correlated with the functional disability score in patients with MS. The ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thicknesses could predict axonal damage in patients with MS. Conclusions Analysis based on the segmentation technology of the Spectralis OCT revealed retinal layer atrophy in patients with MS, especially of the inner layers. Reduction of the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers predicted greater axonal damage in patients with MS. © 2014 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Garcia-Martin E.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Martin E.,Aragones Institute of Health science | Satue M.,University of Zaragoza | Fuertes I.,University of Zaragoza | And 11 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the ability of 3 protocols of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect retinal thinning and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with healthy subjects. To test the intrasession reproducibility of RNFL thickness measurements in patients with PD and healthy subjects using the Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA) and Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) OCT devices. Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants: Patients with PD (n = 75) and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 75) were enrolled. Methods: All subjects underwent three 360-degree circular scans centered on the optic disc by the same experienced examiner using the Cirrus OCT instrument, the classic glaucoma application, and the new Nsite Axonal Analytics of the Spectralis OCT instrument. Main Outcome Measures: Differences between the eyes of healthy subjects and the eyes of patients with PD were compared using the 3 protocols. The relationship between measurements provided by each OCT protocol was evaluated. Repeatability was studied by intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Results: Retinal nerve fiber layer atrophy was detected in eyes of patients with PD (P = 0.025, P=0.042, and P < 0.001) with the 3 protocols used, but the Nsite Axonal Analytics of the Spectralis OCT device was the most sensitive for detecting subclinical defects. In eyes of patients with PD, RNFL thickness measurements determined by the OCT devices were correlated, but they were significantly different between the Cirrus and Spectralis devices (P = 0.038). Reproducibility was good with all 3 protocols but better using the Glaucoma application of the Spectralis OCT device. Conclusions: Fourier-domain OCT can be considered a valid and reproducible device for detecting subclinical RNFL atrophy in patients with PD, especially the Nsite Axonal Analytics of the Spectralis device. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements differed significantly between the Cirrus and Spectralis devices despite a high correlation of the measurements between the 2 instruments. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Source


Satue M.,University of Zaragoza | Satue M.,Aragones Institute of Health science | Garcia-Martin E.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Martin E.,Aragones Institute of Health science | And 12 more authors.
Eye (Basingstoke) | Year: 2013

PurposeTo demonstrate axonal loss in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the ability of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect RNFL degeneration and retinal thinning in these patients.MethodsPD patients (n=100) and healthy subjects (n=100) were included in the study and underwent visual acuity, color vision, and OCT examinations using two next-generation Fourier-domain devices (Spectralis and Cirrus). Differences in the RNFL thicknesses were compared between patients and controls.ResultsRNFL thicknesses were significantly reduced in PD patients compared with healthy subjects, especially those obtained using the Spectralis OCT, in the inferotemporal quadrant (155.6±16.5 μm in healthy eyes vs 142.1±24.9 μm in patients, P=0.040) and in the superotemporal quadrant (142.6±20.9 μm in healthy eyes vs 132.77±18.6 μm in PD patients, P=0.046). Significant differences were observed between controls and patients in relation to mean macular thickness (P=0.031), foveal thickness (P=0.030), and inferior outer thickness (P=0.019).ConclusionPD is associated with RNFL loss and retinal thinning, which is detectable by Fourier-domain OCT measurements. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved 0950-222X/13. Source

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