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Waeckel L.,Institute Of Recherches Servier | Waeckel L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Badier-Commander C.,Institute Of Recherches Servier | Damery T.,Institute Of Recherches Servier | And 11 more authors.
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015

Angiotensin-II and oxidative stress are involved in the genesis of aortic aneurysms, a phenomenon exacerbated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletion or uncoupling. The purpose of this work was to study the endothelial function in wild-type C57BL/6 (BL) and transgenic mice expressing the h-angiotensinogen and h-renin genes (AR) subjected to either a control, or a high-salt diet plus a treatment with a NO-synthase inhibitor, N-ω-nitro-L-argininemethyl- ester (L-NAME; BLSL and ARSL). BLSL showed a moderate increase in blood pressure, while ARSL became severely hypertensive. Seventy-five percent of ARSL developed aortic aneurysms, characterized by major histomorphological changes and associated with an increase in NADP(H) oxidase-2 (NOX2) expression. Contractile responses (KCl, norepinephrine, U-46619) were similar in the four groups of mice, and relaxations were not affected in BLSL and AR. However, in ARSL, endothelium-dependent relaxations (acetylcholine, UK-14304) were significantly reduced, and this dysfunction was similar in aortae without or with aneurysms. The endothelial impairment was unaffected by catalase, superoxide-dismutase mimetic, radical scavengers, cyclooxygenase inhibition, or TP-receptor blockade and could not be attributed to sGC oxidation. Thus, ARSL is a severe hypertension model developing aortic aneurysm. A vascular dysfunction, involving both endothelial (reduced role of NO) and smooth muscle cells, precedes aneurysms formation and, paradoxically, does not appear to involve oxidative stress. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Lambertsen K.L.,University of Southern Denmark | Gramsbergen J.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Sivasaravanaparan M.,University of Southern Denmark | Ditzel N.,University of Southern Denmark | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The calmodulin/calcium-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed in red and white blood cells, epithelia and endothelia, and possibly central and peripheral neurons. However, our knowledge about its contribution to neurological functions and behavior is incomplete. Here, we investigated whether genetic deficiency or pharmacological activation of KCa3.1 change behavior and cerebral monoamine levels in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings: In the open field test, KCa3.1-deficiency increased horizontal activity, as KCa3.1-/- mice travelled longer distances (≈145% of KCa3.1+/+) and at higher speed (≈1.5-fold of KCa3.1+/+). Working memory in the Y-maze was reduced by KCa3.1-deficiency. Motor coordination on the rotarod and neuromuscular functions were unchanged. In KCa3.1-/- mice, HPLC analysis revealed that turn-over rates of serotonin were reduced in frontal cortex, striatum and brain stem, while noradrenalin turn-over rates were increased in the frontal cortex. Dopamine turn-over rates were unaltered. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels were unaltered. Intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of the KCa3.1/KCa2-activator SKA-31 reduced rearing and turning behavior in KCa3.1+/+ but not in KCa3.1-/- mice, while 30 mg/kg SKA-31 caused strong sedation in 50% of the animals of either genotypes. KCa3.1-/- mice were hyperactive (≈+60%) in their home cage and SKA-31-administration reduced nocturnal physical activity in KCa3.1+/+ but not in KCa3.1-/- mice. Conclusions/Significance: KCa3.1-deficiency causes locomotor hyperactivity and altered monoamine levels in selected brain regions, suggesting a so far unknown functional link of KCa3.1 channels to behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in mice. The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders. © 2012 Lambertsen et al.

Hua X.,University of Hamburg | Deuse T.,University of Hamburg | Chen Y.-J.,University of California at Davis | Wulff H.,University of California at Davis | And 8 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is critically involved in T-cell activation as well as in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. We sought to investigate whether KCa3.1 contributes to the pathogenesis of obliterative airway disease (OAD) and whether knockout or pharmacologic blockade would prevent the development of OAD. METHODS: Tracheas from CBA donors were heterotopically transplanted into the omentum of C57Bl/6J wild-type or KCa3.1 mice. C57Bl/6J recipients were either left untreated or received the KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34 (120 mg/kg/day). Histopathology and immunologic assays were performed on postoperative day 5 or 28. RESULTS: Subepithelial T-cell and macrophage infiltration on postoperative day 5, as seen in untreated allografts, was significantly reduced in the KCa3.1 and TRAM-34 groups. Also, systemic Th1 activation was significantly and Th2 mildly reduced by KCa3.1 knockout or blockade. After 28 days, luminal obliteration of tracheal allografts was reduced from 89%±21% in untreated recipients to 53%±26% (P=0.010) and 59%±33% (P=0.032) in KCa3.1 and TRAM-34-treated animals, respectively. The airway epithelium was mostly preserved in syngeneic grafts, mostly destroyed in the KCa3.1 and TRAM-34 groups, and absent in untreated allografts. Allografts triggered an antibody response in untreated recipients, which was significantly reduced in KCa3.1 animals. KCa3.1 was detected in T cells, airway epithelial cells, and myofibroblasts. TRAM-34 dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of wild-type C57B/6J splenocytes but did not show any effect on KCa3.1 splenocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that KCa3.1 channels are involved in the pathogenesis of OAD and that KCa3.1 blockade holds promise to reduce OAD development. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wandall-Frostholm C.,University of Aarhus | Skaarup L.M.,University of Aarhus | Sadda V.,University of Aarhus | Sadda V.,University of Southern Denmark | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and K Ca3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of K Ca2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Approach and Result: Male wild type and KCa3.1 -/-/K Ca2.3T/T(+DOX) mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3 T/T(+DOX) mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and K Ca3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype. Conclusion: Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of K Ca2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel mechanism to counteract pulmonary hypertension and to a potential therapeutic utility of KCa2.3/KCa3.1 activators for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. © 2014 Wandall-Frostholm et al.

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