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Martiez I.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2010

The new paradigm of personal health demands open standards and middleware components that permit transparent integration and end-to-end interoperability from new personal health devices to healthcare information system. The use of standards seems to be the internationally accepted way to face this challenge. In this article, the implementation of an end-to-end standard-based personal health solution is presented. It integrates the ISO/IEEE11073 standard for the interoperability of personal health devices in the patient environment and the ISO/EN13606 standard for the interoperable exchange of electronic healthcare records and proposes a new approach for the end-to-end ISO/IEEE11073-ISO/EN13606 communication. The design strictly fulfills all the technical requirements of the most recent versions of both standards. An entire prototype has been designed, developed, and tested as a proof-of-concept of a personal health solution.

Pena E.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research | Pena E.,CIBER ISCIII
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2011

Deformation induced softening is an inelastic phenomenon frequently accompanying mechanical response of soft biological tissues. Inelastic phenomena which occur in mechanical testing of biological tissues are very likely to be associated with alterations in the internal structure of these materials. In this study, a novel structural constitutive model is formulated to describe the inelastic effects in soft biological tissues such as Mullins type behavior, damage and permanent set as a result of residual strains after unloading. Anisotropic softening is considered by evolution of internal variables governing the anisotropic properties of the material. We consider two weight factors wi (softening) and sk (discontinuous damage) as internal variables characterizing the structural state of the material. Numerical simulations of several soft tissues are used to demonstrate the performance of the model in reproducing the inelastic behavior of soft biological tissues. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chinesta F.,Ecole Centrale Nantes | Ladeveze P.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan | Cueto E.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper revisits a new model reduction methodology based on the use of separated representations, the so called Proper Generalized Decomposition-PGD. Space and time separated representations generalize Proper Orthogonal Decompositions-POD-avoiding any a priori knowledge on the solution in contrast to the vast majority of POD based model reduction technologies as well as reduced bases approaches. Moreover, PGD allows to treat efficiently models defined in degenerated domains as well as the multidimensional models arising from multidimensional physics (quantum chemistry, kinetic theory descriptions,...) or from the standard ones when some sources of variability are introduced in the model as extra-coordinates. © 2011 CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain.

Manya J.J.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

According to the International Biochar Initiative (IBI), biochar is a charcoal which can be applied to soil for both agricultural and environmental gains. Biochar technology seems to have a very promising future. Nevertheless, the further development of this technology requires continuing research. The present paper provides an updated review on two subjects: the available alternatives to produce biochar from a biomass feedstock and the effect of biochar addition to agricultural soils on soil properties and fertility. A high number of previous studies have highlighted the benefit of using biochar in terms of mitigating global warning (through carbon sequestration) and as a strategy to manage soil processes and functions. Nevertheless, the relationship between biochar properties (mainly physical properties and chemical functionalities on surface) and its applicability as a soil amendment is still unclear and does not allow the establishment of the appropriate process conditions to produce a biochar with desired characteristics. For this reason, the need of enhancing the collaboration among researchers working in different fields of study is highlighted: production and characterization of biochar on one hand, and on the other measurement of both environmental and agronomical benefits linked to the addition of biochar to agricultural soils. In this sense, when experimental results concerning the effect of the addition of biochar to a given soil on crop yields and/or soil properties are published, details regarding the properties of the used biochar should be well reported. The inclusion of this valuable information seems to be essential in order to establish the appropriate process conditions to produce a biochar with more suitable characteristics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

The different psychophysical studies carried out on the qualitative properties of simple and complex mixtures are reviewed. Many of the early studies conducted on binary mixtures have been reprocessed and compared by using similar representations and data treatments. Results confirm that the intensity ratio of the mixture constituents is the main driver of quality, so that the most intense compound tends to dominate the overall odour of the mixture. In contrast to what was previously thought, in most binary mixtures one of the components is more powerful than the other, dominating the overall odour of the mixture in a larger range of mixture compositions. In some but not all subsets of odorants, a clear hierarchy in their relative dominance has been observed. Pleasantness, complexity or freshness arise as major but not unique factors determining the order of dominance. Steven's coefficients could also have an influence, while polarity and temporal processing rates seem to have no influence. Competitive interactions at receptor level seem to play a limited role. In some aroma pairs, a small change in odour composition (26%) provokes the shift in odour dominance, while in others a 500% intensity change may be required for the shift. There is sound evidence that one or several odour descriptors of minor non-dominant odour components can be detected in the odour of the mixture. In more complex mixtures, results support the fact that some odorants in specific odour backgrounds are detected more easily than others. The most frequent qualitative outcome of a complex mixture will be an average of the odour qualitative descriptors of the odour chemicals present in the mixture, except when the mixture contains within its constituents a series of odour chemicals at specific intensity ratios able to trigger a configurational recognition process ending with the recognition of a different odour object. Key challenges for the modelling of the aroma properties of complex systems are enunciated. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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