Aragon Health science Institute ICS

Zaragoza, Spain

Aragon Health science Institute ICS

Zaragoza, Spain
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Canga L.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research | Canga L.,CIBER ISCIII | Navarro A.,University of Zaragoza | Navarro A.,Aragon Health Science Institute ICS | And 8 more authors.
Computing in Cardiology | Year: 2012

A non-linear analysis of heart rate variability is carried out through two complexity measures (Correlation Dimension and Pointwise Correlation Dimension) and two regularity measures (Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy) in order to predict hypotension episodes occurred during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery. These methods are applied to RR-interval series, during which woman adopts two alternative positions, one physiologically relaxed (PR) and one physiologically stressed (PS). Results show that women who developed hypotension have significantly higher (p-value ≤ 0.05) complexity measures at PR position, (and significantly lower values for the PS position), than those who did not developed the disease. Regarding the regularity measures, women who developed hypotension have lower values, but not arriving to significance, during PS position than those who did not developed it, whereas those values remain almost constant for PR position. © 2012 CCAL.

Ayuso-Tejedor S.,University of Zaragoza | Abian O.,University of Zaragoza | Abian O.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Abian O.,CIBER ISCIII | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Flavodoxins are bacterial electron transport proteins whose redox competence is due to the presence of a tightly but noncovalently bound FMN molecule. While the thermodynamics of the complex are understood, the mechanism of association between the apoflavodoxin and the redox cofactor is not so clear. We investigate here the mechanism of FMN binding to the apoflavodoxin from Helicobacter pylori, an essential protein that is being used as a target to develop antimicrobials. This flavodoxin is structurally peculiar as it lacks the typical bulky residue interacting with the FMN re face but bears instead a small alanine. FMN binding is biphasic, regardless of the presence of phosphate molecules in solution, while riboflavin binding takes place in a single step, the rate constant of which coincides with the fast phase of FMN binding. A mutational study at the isoalloxazine and phosphate subsites for FMN binding clearly indicates that FMN association is always limited by interaction with the isoalloxazine subsite because mutating residues that interact with the phosphate moiety of FMN in the native complex hardly changes the observed rate constants and amplitudes. In contrast, replacing tyr92, which interacts with the isoalloxazine, greatly lowers the rate constants. Our analysis indicates that the two FMN binding phases observed are related neither with alternative or sequential interaction with the two binding subsites nor with the presence of bound phosphate. It is possible that they reflect the intrinsic conformational heterogeneity of the apoflavodoxin ensemble. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Abian O.,Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet | Abian O.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Abian O.,University of Zaragoza | Abian O.,Research Center Biomedica En Red En El Area Tematica Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Gaucher disease (GD) is a disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase) activity, due to conformationally or functionally defective variants, resulting in progressive deposition of glycosylceramide in macrophages. The glucose analogue, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ, miglustat), is an inhibitor of the ceramide-specific glycosyltransferase, which catalyzes the first step of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and is currently approved for the oral treatment of type 1 GD. In a previous work, we found a GlcCerase activity increase in cell cultures in the presence of NB-DNJ, which could imply that this compound is not only a substrate reducer but also a pharmacological chaperone or inhibitor for GlcCerase degradation. In this work we compare imiglucerase (the enzyme currently used for replacement therapy) and velaglucerase alfa (a novel therapeutic enzyme form) in terms of conformational stability and enzymatic activity, as well as the effect of NB-DNJ on them. The interaction between these enzymes and NB-DNJ was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. Our results reveal that, although velaglucerase alfa and imiglucerase exhibit very similar activity profiles, velaglucerase alfa shows higher in vitro thermal stability and is less prone to aggregation/precipitation, which could be advantageous for storage and clinical administration. In addition, we show that at neutral pH NB-DNJ binds to and enhances the stability of both enzymes, while at mildly acidic lysosomal conditions it does not bind to them. These results support the potential role of NB-DNJ as a pharmacological chaperone, susceptible of being part of pharmaceutical formulation or combination therapy for GD in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Conesa C.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Conesa C.,University of Zaragoza | Doss M.X.,Stem Cell Center | Antzelevitch C.,Stem Cell Center | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2012

A potential application of embryonic and inducible pluripotent stem cells for the therapy of degenerative diseases involves pure somatic cells, free of tumorigenic undifferentiated embryonic and inducible pluripotent stem cells. In complex collections of chemicals with pharmacological potential we expect to find molecules able to induce specific pluripotent stem cell death, which could be used in some cell therapy settings to eliminate undifferentiated cells. Therefore, we have screened a chemical library of 1120 small chemicals to identify compounds that induce specifically apoptotic cell death in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Interestingly, three compounds currently used as clinically approved drugs, nortriptyline, benzethonium chloride and methylbenzethonium chloride, induced differential effects in cell viability in ESCs versus mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Nortriptyline induced apoptotic cell death in MEFs but not in ESCs, whereas benzethonium and methylbenzethonium chloride showed the opposite effect. Nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, has also been described as a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, one of two major mechanisms involved in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization during apoptosis. Benzethonium chloride and methylbenzethonium chloride are quaternary ammonium salts used as antimicrobial agents with broad spectrum and have also been described as anticancer agents. A similar effect of benzethonium chloride was observed in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) when compared to both primary human skin fibroblasts and an established human fibroblast cell line. Human fibroblasts and hiPSCs were similarly resistant to nortriptyline, although with a different behavior. Our results indicate differential sensitivity of ESCs, hiPSCs and fibroblasts to certain chemical compounds, which might have important applications in the stem cell-based therapy by eliminating undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells from stem cell-derived somatic cells to prevent tumor formation after transplantation for therapy of degenerative diseases. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Abian O.,University of Zaragoza | Abian O.,Unidad University | Abian O.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Vega S.,University of Zaragoza | And 3 more authors.
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2010

The hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is responsible for the processing of the nonstructural region of viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. NS3 has been considered a target for drug discovery for a long time. NS3 is a zinc-dependent serine protease. However, the zinc ion is not involved in the catalytic mechanism, because it is bound far away from the active site. Thus, zinc is essential for the structural integrity of the protein and it is considered to have a structural role. The first thermodynamic study on the conformational equilibrium and stability of NS3 and the effect of zinc on such equilibrium is presented here. In agreement with a previous calorimetric study on the binding of zinc to NS3, the global unfolding heat capacity is dominated by the zinc dissociation step, suggesting that the binding of zinc induces a significant structural rearrangement of the protein. In addition, contrary to other homologous zinc-dependent proteases, the zinc-free NS3 protease is not completely unstructured. It is apparent that the conformational landscape of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is fairly complex due to its intrinsic plasticity, and to the interactions with its different effectors (zinc and the accessory viral protein NS4A) and their modulation of the population of the different conformational states. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society.

Cortes-Ciriano I.,University of Zaragoza | Koutsoukas A.,University of Cambridge | Abian O.,University of Zaragoza | Abian O.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | And 3 more authors.
MedChemComm | Year: 2013

Two relatively recent trends have become apparent in current early stage drug discovery settings: firstly, a revival of phenotypic screening strategies and secondly, the increasing acceptance that some drugs work by modulating multiple targets in parallel ('multi-target drugs'). The work presented here combines both those aspects by integrating experimental phenotypic screening for cytotoxic compounds with an experimental validation of individual protein targets predicted in silico. In this first step of this work, in silico target predictions for a dataset comprising cytotoxic compounds showed an enrichment of enzymes involved in cell cycle progression (such as Topoisomerase I, Bcl-X and Protein Kinase C alpha) as well as in the defense against xenobiotic compounds (such as P-gp 1 and the CYPs). Ten compounds predicted to be active on each of two of the enriched targets, P-glycoprotein 1 and Topoisomerase I, were tested in vitro to validate (or invalidate) the predicted mode of action. Hoechst 33342 dye uptake, P-gp ATPase activity and Topoisomerase I DNA relaxation assays were able to identify two inhibitors of P-gp with IC50 values of 37 ± 5 and 28 ± 2 μM, respectively (comparable to the activity of Verapamil of 12 μM measured with the same assay) as well as five moderate inhibitors of Topoisomerase I. Furthermore, we also screened combinations of compounds with different modes of action to evaluate possible synergistic effects. When evaluating compound synergies, four of the five compounds exhibit synergistic effects in HeLa cell cultures in the presence of the two P-gp inhibitors identified (two independent samples t-test, p < 0.01). Hence, this appears to be one of the first studies where multiple aspects of compound action as predicted by in silico models are prospectively validated, namely phenotypic effect as well as on-target activities, and where synergies between compound combinations could also be experimentally confirmed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Carmona I.C.,University of Zaragoza | Carmona I.C.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Luesma Bartolome M.J.,University of Zaragoza | Luesma Bartolome M.J.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | And 3 more authors.
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2011

The intermediate nestin filament is expressed in neural stem cells, neuroectodermal tumors and various adult tissues under situations that reproduce developmental phases, e.g., physiological renewal of certain cell types, tissue regeneration, and healing or revascularization. In the human gastrointestinal tract, nestin has been reported in glial cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. We examined by immunohistochemistry the appearance and distribution of nestin protein in enteric ganglia of rat duodenum. Through the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, a high number of nestin-positive cells were visualized in this specie. The nestin-positive cells were smaller and more numerous than enteric neurons. They were present both within and around ganglia. The results of this study suggest that the rat enteric glial cells (EGCs) are rich in nestin, a protein usually associated with dividing or migrating cells and the dynamic reorganization of nestin filaments during the cell cycle. EGCs could function as enteric stem cells. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Cantarero I.,University of Zaragoza | Cantarero I.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Luesma M.J.,University of Zaragoza | Luesma M.J.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

Blood vessels are highly organized and complex structure, which are far more than simple tubes conducting the blood to almost any tissue of the body. The fine structure of the wall of blood vessels has been studied previously using the electron microscope, but the presence the telocytes associated with vasculature, a specific new cellular entity, has not been studied in depth. Interestingly, telocytes have been recently found in the epicardium, myocardium, endocardium, human term placenta, duodenal lamina propria and pleura. We show the presence of telocytes located on the extracellular matrix of blood vessels (arterioles, venules and capillaries) by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Also, we demonstrated the first evidence of a primary cilium in telocytes. Several functions have been proposed for these cells. Here, the telocyte-blood vessels cell proximity, the relationship between telocytes, exosomes and nervous trunks may have a special significance. © 2011 The Authors © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Carmona I.C.,University of Zaragoza | Carmona I.C.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | Bartolome M.J.L.,University of Zaragoza | Bartolome M.J.L.,Aragon Health science Institute ICS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

Recently the new term 'telocytes' has been proposed for cells formerly known as interstitial Cajal-like cells. In fact, telocytes are not really Cajal-like cells, they being different from all other interstitial cells by the presence of telopodes, which are cell-body prolongations, very thin, extremely long with a moniliform aspect. The identification of these cells is based on ultrastructural criteria. The presence of telocytes in others organs was previously documented. We reported for the first time, an ultrastructural study of telocytes in the lamina propria of rat duodenum. Our findings show that typical telocytes are present in the rat duodenum. Telocytes are located in the lamina propria, immediately below mucosal crypts. Telopodes frequently establish close spatial relationships with immune cells, blood vessels and nerve endings. On the basis of their distribution and morphology, we suggest that these cells may be involved in immune response and in our opinion, it may be possible that different locations of telocytes could be associated with different roles. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | Aragon Health science Institute ICS and University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proteomics. Clinical applications | Year: 2015

Obesity has emerged as one of the major global epidemics of the 21st century and is now reaching alarming proportions. Obese subjects have an increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life and a major risk of developing pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a complex disease characterised by an increase in body fat mass resulting from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Signal integration between adipose tissue, other peripheral organs and the CNS seems to regulate energy homeostasis. Proteomics may be useful in unravelling the pathogenesis of obesity, since a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors account for its development. Most of the proteomic studies performed to date have focused on protein profiling of adipose tissue in different models of experimental obesity and the study of the adipocyte differentiation process. Another issue that has recently attracted attention is the characterisation of the adipocyte secretome, which may be important in signalling to other organs and in regulating energy balance. Target identification of potential therapies has also been investigated by proteomics. This review focuses on the contributions of proteomics to understanding the molecular mechanisms of obesity and their potential therapies.

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