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Manama, Bahrain

Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Hassan A.S.,Qatar University | Obeid O.,American University of Beirut
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Al-Sobayel H.I.,King Saud University | Abahussain N.A.,Ministry of Education | Qahwaji D.M.,King Abdulaziz University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2014

Background: Understanding the inter-relationships between lifestyle factors in youth is important with respect to the development of effective promotional programmes for healthy eating and active living. The present study aimed to explore the associations of dietary habits (DH) with physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Saudi adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age relative to gender. Methods: Data were obtained from the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study, a school-based multicentre lifestyle study conducted in 2009/2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. The number of participants with complete data for DH and PA was 2886 and the respective number for DH and ST was 2822. Assessment included weight, height, body mass index, total daily ST (television viewing, video/computer games and Internet use), PA and DH using self-reported questionnaires. Results: Females were significantly more sedentary and less active than males (P < 0.001). Two-way analysis of covariance, controlling for age, showed significant (P < 0.05) gender by PA and gender by ST interactions for several DH. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations of higher PA with a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, French fries/potato chips and energy drinks, whereas higher ST was significantly associated with a higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods, cake/doughnuts and energy drinks. Conclusions: Healthful dietary habits were associated mostly with PA, whereas sedentary behaviours, independent of PA, negatively impacted upon eating behaviours. The low PA levels and high sedentary levels of Saudi females represent a great concern. The results reported in the present study have important implications for both youth public health policies and intervention programmes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source

Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Abahussain N.A.,School Health | And 2 more authors.
Child: Care, Health and Development | Year: 2014

Background: Lifestyle factors are important determinants of adequate sleep among adolescents. However, findings on sleep duration relative to lifestyle factors are conflicting. Therefore, this study examined the association of self-reported sleep duration with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents. Methods: A multicentre school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. The sample included 2868 secondary-school students (51.9% girls) aged 15-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. In addition to anthropometric measurements, sleep duration, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were assessed using self-reported questionnaire. Results: Several lifestyle factors were associated with sleep duration in adolescents. While controlling for some potential confounders, the findings showed that high screen time [>5h/day; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.505, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.180-1.920, P = 0.001] and low (aOR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.064-1.566, P = 0.010) to medium (aOR = 1.316, 95% CI = 1.075-1.611, P = 0.008) physical activity levels were significantly related to daily sleep of 8h or longer. Furthermore, having low intake of breakfast (<3 day/week compared with 5 days or more per week) decreased the odd of having adequate sleep duration by a factor of 0.795 (95% CI = 0.667-0.947, P < 0.010). Conclusions: Short sleep duration (<8h/day) among Saudi adolescents 15-19 year olds was significantly associated with several lifestyle factors. Intervention programs aiming for improving sleeping habits among adolescents need to consider such potential association of lifestyle variables with sleep duration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University
International Journal of General Medicine | Year: 2012

This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus on promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. © 2012 Musaiger and Al-Hazzaa, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Musaiger A.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Musaiger A.,University of Bahrain | Abahussain N.,School Health | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent's health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379) and females (1389) aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD) of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6) hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001). In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not. Source

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