Manama, Bahrain
Manama, Bahrain

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Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Al-Sobayel H.I.,King Saud University | Qahwaji D.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Alahmadi M.A.,King Saud University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2014

Background: Understanding the inter-relationships between lifestyle factors in youth is important with respect to the development of effective promotional programmes for healthy eating and active living. The present study aimed to explore the associations of dietary habits (DH) with physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Saudi adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age relative to gender. Methods: Data were obtained from the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study, a school-based multicentre lifestyle study conducted in 2009/2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. The number of participants with complete data for DH and PA was 2886 and the respective number for DH and ST was 2822. Assessment included weight, height, body mass index, total daily ST (television viewing, video/computer games and Internet use), PA and DH using self-reported questionnaires. Results: Females were significantly more sedentary and less active than males (P < 0.001). Two-way analysis of covariance, controlling for age, showed significant (P < 0.05) gender by PA and gender by ST interactions for several DH. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations of higher PA with a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, French fries/potato chips and energy drinks, whereas higher ST was significantly associated with a higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods, cake/doughnuts and energy drinks. Conclusions: Healthful dietary habits were associated mostly with PA, whereas sedentary behaviours, independent of PA, negatively impacted upon eating behaviours. The low PA levels and high sedentary levels of Saudi females represent a great concern. The results reported in the present study have important implications for both youth public health policies and intervention programmes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.


Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Abahussain N.A.,School Health | And 2 more authors.
Child: Care, Health and Development | Year: 2014

Background: Lifestyle factors are important determinants of adequate sleep among adolescents. However, findings on sleep duration relative to lifestyle factors are conflicting. Therefore, this study examined the association of self-reported sleep duration with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents. Methods: A multicentre school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. The sample included 2868 secondary-school students (51.9% girls) aged 15-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. In addition to anthropometric measurements, sleep duration, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were assessed using self-reported questionnaire. Results: Several lifestyle factors were associated with sleep duration in adolescents. While controlling for some potential confounders, the findings showed that high screen time [>5h/day; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.505, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.180-1.920, P = 0.001] and low (aOR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.064-1.566, P = 0.010) to medium (aOR = 1.316, 95% CI = 1.075-1.611, P = 0.008) physical activity levels were significantly related to daily sleep of 8h or longer. Furthermore, having low intake of breakfast (<3 day/week compared with 5 days or more per week) decreased the odd of having adequate sleep duration by a factor of 0.795 (95% CI = 0.667-0.947, P < 0.010). Conclusions: Short sleep duration (<8h/day) among Saudi adolescents 15-19 year olds was significantly associated with several lifestyle factors. Intervention programs aiming for improving sleeping habits among adolescents need to consider such potential association of lifestyle variables with sleep duration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Abahussain N.A.,Director of School Health | Al-Sobayel H.I.,King Saud University | Qahwaji D.M.,King Abdulaziz University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2011

Background: Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits.Results: A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors.Conclusions: The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. © 2011 Al-Hazzaa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University
International Journal of General Medicine | Year: 2012

This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus on promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. © 2012 Musaiger and Al-Hazzaa, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Al-Hazzaa H.M.,King Saud University | Musaiger A.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Musaiger A.,University of Bahrain | Abahussain N.,School Health | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent's health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379) and females (1389) aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD) of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6) hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001). In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.


Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Al-Mannai M.,University of Bahrain | Al-Marzog Q.,Ministry of Education
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: Obesity has become one of the main public health problems worldwide. Childhood obesity rate is growing very fast in both developed and developing countries. This paper aimed to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children aged 10-13 years in Bahrain, and to find out the difference in this prevalence when using two international standards. Methods: A multistage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 2146 students (1068 males, 1078 females) from public schools in Bahrain. Weight and height were measured and Body Mass Index for age and sex was calculated to determine the obesity levels. Both International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) references were used to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results: The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 15.7% to 28.9% among males and from 21.1% to 30.7% among females. The WHO reference standard provided higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than IOTF reference. Conclusion: The study confirmed that obesity is a problem of concern in Bahraini school children and calls for intervention programme to combat obesity in schools. However, the standard used to determine obesity levels should be carefully selected and interpreted.


Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Hassan A.S.,Qatar University | Obeid O.,American University of Beirut
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Musaiger A.O.,University of Bahrain | Musaiger A.O.,Arab Center for Nutrition | Al-Mannai M.,University of Bahrain
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2014

Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (p<0.044), Egypt (p<0.001) and Jordan (p<0.001). Exposure to television had a weaker association than exposure to magazines with body weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (p<0.019) and Oman (p<0.019). The pressure from mass media on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


Musaiger A.,Arab Center for Nutrition
Global journal of health science | Year: 2014

The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.


Musaiger A.,Arab Center for Nutrition
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective. The aim of this study was to explore some body weight concerns among females at university in five Arab countries. Methods. The sample comprised 1,134 females aged 17–32 from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. A pretested questionnaire was used to determine the aspects of body weight concern. Results. Approximately 32% – 39% of females were dissatisfied with their weight, 17% – 31% wanted their body shape to be similar to Western fashion models, and 5% – 16% believed that men preferred plump women. Of the females, 22–37% had dieted to lose weight during the six months prior to the study, and 8–15% performed exercises to improve body shape most of the time. The differences in body weight concerns were statistically significant between countries. Conclusions. Body weight concern is relatively highly prevalent among young Arab women; however the prevalence varied between countries, mainly due to differences in socio-cultural background between countries. © 2015, Institute of Agricultural Medicine. All rights reserved.

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