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Dorr H.,University of Ulm | Abend M.,University of Ulm | Blakely W.F.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | Bolduc D.L.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute | And 33 more authors.
Radiation Research | Year: 2017

The utility of early-phase (≤5 days) radiation-induced clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, erythema and changes in blood cell counts) was examined for the prediction of later occurring acute radiation syndrome (ARS) severity and the development of medical management strategies. Medical treatment protocols for radiation accident victims (METREPOL) was used to grade ARS severities, which were assigned response categories (RCs). Data on individuals (n = 191) with mild (RC1, n = 45), moderate (RC2, n = 19), severe (RC3, n = 20) and fatal (RC4, n = 18) ARS, as well as nonexposed individuals (RC0, n = 89) were generated using either METREPOL (n = 167) or the system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH) database (n = 24), the latter comprised of real-case descriptions. These data were converted into tables reflecting clinical signs and symptoms, and submitted to eight teams representing five participating countries. The teams were comprised of medical doctors, biologists and pharmacists with subject matter expertise. The tables comprised cumulated clinical data from day 1-3 and day 1-5 postirradiation. While it would have reflected a more realistic scenario to provide the data to the teams over the course of a 3- or 5-day period, the logistics of doing so proved too challenging. In addition, the team members participating in this exercise chose to receive the cumulated reports of day 1-3 and 1-5. The teams were tasked with predicting ARS incidence, ARS severity and the requirement for hospitalization for multiple cases, as well as providing the certainty of their diagnosis. Five of the teams also performed dose estimates. The teams did not employ harmonized methodologies, and the expertise among the members varied, as did the tools used and the means of analyzing the clinical data. The earliest report time was 3 h after the tables were sent to the team members. The majority of cases developing ARS (89.6% ± 3.3 SD) and requiring hospitalization (88.8% ± 4.6 SD) were correctly identified by all teams. Determination of ARS severity was particularly challenging for RC2-3, which was systematically overestimated. However, RC4 was correctly predicted at 94-100% by all teams. RC0 and RC1 ARS severities were more difficult to discriminate. When reported RCs (0-1 and 3-4) were merged, on average 89.6% (±3.3 SD) of all cases could be correctly classified. Comparisons on frequency distributions revealed no statistically significant differences among the following: 1. reported ARS from different teams (P > 0.2); 2. cases generated based on METREPOL or SEARCH (P > 0.5); or 3. results reported at day 3 and 5 postirradiation (P > 0.1). Dose estimates of all teams increased significantly along with ARS severity (P < 0.0001) as well as with dose estimates generated from dicentric chromosomal-aberration measurements available for SEARCH cases (P < 0.0001). In summary, early-phase radiation-induced clinical signs and symptoms proved to be useful for rapid and accurate assessment, with minor limitations, toward predicting life-threatening ARS severity and developing treatment management strategies. © 2017 by Radiation Research Society.

Carton G.,CALIBRE Systems Inc. | King J.C.,U.S. Army | Josh Bowers R.,ARA Inc
Marine Technology Society Journal | Year: 2012

Development of methods and technologies to characterize sites with underwater military munitions (UWMM) and respond to UWMM where the risks posed to human health or the environment or explosive hazards are unacceptable is underway. Department of Defense Military Munitions Sea Disposal Site Hawaii (HI-06), referred to locally as Ordnance Reef, is off Oahu's leeward coast. This site has become the focal point for research on UWMM. Past studies found that the site presents no immediate danger to public safety. The location and water depth at this site present advantages for UWMM research and development. Promising technologies demonstrated at Ordnance Reef (HI-06) include those for munitions recovery, at-sea demilitarization, nondestructive testing, and explosives detection. Studies on fate and transport of munitions-related compounds and corrosion are ongoing. Among these technologies are the Remotely Operated Underwater Munitions Recovery System (ROUMRS) and the Explosive Hazard Demilitarization System (EHDS). Both are assemblages of commercial off-the-shelf components, and each is housed in a standard 6-m International Organization for Standardization (ISO) shipping container and can be operated on a barge. ROUMRS consists of a remotely operated vehicle, manipulators, an interface between a precision GPS, and underwater navigation equipment used during recovery of UWMM. The system also transports recovered UWMM for treatment. The EHDS consists of a portable X-ray unit to allow positive identification of recovered munitions, remotely operated wet band saws to cut recovered munitions to expose their explosive fill, and low-temperature ovens to treat the exposed explosives, making the remaining material safe for recycling.

Kroll N.,German Aerospace Center | Leicht T.,German Aerospace Center | Hirsch C.,NUMECA Int | Bass F.,University of Bergamo | And 3 more authors.
53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting | Year: 2015

In aeronautical industry numerical flow simulation has become a key element in the aerodynamic design process. However, in order to meet the ambitious goals for air traffic of the next decades, significant investment in enhancing the capabilities and tools of numerical simulations in various aspects is required. Within the 7th European Research Framework Programme, the collaborative target research project IDIHOM was initiated. The overall objective of this project was to enhance and mature adaptive high-order simulation methods for large-scale applications. Compared to its low-order counterparts, high-order methods have shown large potential to either increase the predictive accuracy related to the discretization error at given costs or to significantly reduce computational expenses for a prescribed accuracy. The IDIHOM project was driven by a top-down approach, in which dedicated enhancements and improvements of the complete high-order simulation framework, including grid generation, flow solver and visualization, were led by a suite of underlying and challenging test cases. The project gathered 21 partners from industry, research organizations and universities with well-proven expertise in high-order methods. It started end October 2010 and finished March 2014. This paper presents the achievements of the project and highlights strengths, weaknesses and perspectives of higher-order methods for aerodynamic applications. © 2015 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

Veinott E.S.,ARA Inc. | Perleman B.,ARA Inc. | Polander E.,ARA Inc. | Leonard J.,ARA Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Conference Proceedings - 2014 IEEE Games, Media, Entertainment Conference, IEEE GEM 2014 | Year: 2015

Does visual fidelity and cognitive fidelity affect learning in a video game? In this paper we present data collected from 65 participants who played one of four different versions of a 3D video game, Heurística, designed to train decision making. We analyzed learning using a 2 cognitive fidelity × 2 visual fidelity between subjects analysis of variance. Our findings indicated that there was an interaction between the two types of fidelity, and no main effects on learning. Participants' learning was best when their visual and cognitive fidelity matched and worse when the visual fidelity was low, but the cognitive fidelity was high. This is one of the first experiments to compare both types of fidelity in a single video game platform experimentally. Our findings suggest that for high level cognitive training such as in Heurística, the fit between visual fidelity and the tasks matters. However, more research is needed with different types of video games and learning objectives. © 2014 IEEE.

Mullinix G.,ARA Inc. | Gray O.,ARA Inc. | Colado J.,ARA Inc. | Veinott E.,ARA Inc. | And 16 more authors.
IEEE Consumer Electronics Society's International Games Innovations Conference, IGIC | Year: 2013

This paper describes the design process and development of a 3D immersive serious game, Heuristica. The objective of this video game is to train players to improve their decision making by mitigating cognitive biases in an engaging and effective way. Heuristica is the result of three development and empirical evaluation cycles over 18 months. Several game features have been tested, and only those that improved learning while maintaining engagement have been retained in the latest version of the video game. These include reward, real time feedback, and game customization. Our development and playtesting process is summarized, and the implications for designing training are described. © 2013 IEEE.

Veinott E.S.,ARA Inc. | Leonard J.,ARA Inc. | Papautsky E.L.,ARA Inc. | Perelman B.,ARA Inc. | And 13 more authors.
IEEE Consumer Electronics Society's International Games Innovations Conference, IGIC | Year: 2013

In this paper, we examine the effects of three video game variables: camera perspective (1st person versus 3rd person), session duration, and repeated play on training participants to mitigate three cognitive biases. We developed a 70 minute, 3D immersive video game for use as an experimentation test bed. One-hundred and sixty three participants either watched an instructional decision video or played one of the four versions of the game. Each participant's learning was assessed by comparing his or her post-test scores and pre-test scores for knowledge of the biases and ability to mitigate them. Results indicated that repeated game play across two sessions produced the largest improvement in learning, and was more effective than the instructional decision video and single session game for mitigating biases. Surprisingly, session duration did not improve learning, and results were mixed for the third person perspective improved learning. Overall, the video game did improve participant's ability to learn and to mitigate three cognitive biases. Implications for training using video game are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

Hanes J.,ARA Inc. | Fay J.F.,Jacobs TEAS Team
Simulation Series | Year: 2015

Fault trees are used to evaluate weaknesses in many types of systems, including military systems. They are frequently used in simulations to link component failure to functional capabilities. This research compares several methods to find the key components that disable fault trees, paying particular attention to minimal cut sets. The methods explored include SAPHIRE, Genetic Algorithms, and Graph Theory. SAPHIRE is a software system developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Exhaustive searches are used for small test cases as a means of validating and comparing the other methodologies. The above methods are described and compared for their applicability to evaluating effects on military systems. The results show that genetic algorithms are a promising method to augment weapons effects simulations to find weaknesses in military targets. Copyright ©2015 Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS).

News Article | November 18, 2016

$1,093,861.71 Order for Judgment Obtained for Fraud, Theft and Conversion EAGAN, MN--(Marketwired - Nov 18, 2016) - A Minnesota jury awarded ARA, Inc. $961,283.42, exclusive of costs and attorney's fees, for claims of breach of contract, fraud, theft and conversion. In March of 2015, TempWorks Software Inc. and ARA Inc. discovered that a mutual customer, JG Staffing, Inc., of Phoenix, AZ, had orchestrated a payment lapping scheme involving the factoring of improperly-discounted invoices. After the scheme was uncovered, the Arizona staffing firm began intercepting debtor payments due ARA, Inc. In May of 2015, JG Staffing, Inc. filed an unsuccessful lawsuit accusing TempWorks Software Inc. of withholding its proprietary data and overcharging, and ARA Inc. of interfering with a large customer relationship. ARA, Inc. counterclaimed, and was awarded $723,884.63 for fraud and breach of contract, $87,398.79 for conversion, $75,000 for theft, and $75,000 in punitive damages related to the theft. $132,578.29 was awarded by the court for pre-judgment interest. Documents produced during the discovery phase of litigation tie JG Staffing, Inc. to the operation of web domain "Beware Of TempWorks." The domain is owned by Florida resident David Stemm, who together with Texas businessman Todd Barnes, refer to themselves as "victims" of TempWorks. Barnes is the registered owner of Cibolo Creek Capital, LLC, which conducted over $100,000 of banking transfers with a JG Staffing entity during the pendency of the litigation. A $110,027.07 default judgment was entered in Alabama against Mr. Barnes in 2014, in favor of Birmingham factoring firm Momentum Capital Funding, LLC, in a case involving allegations of theft and fraud. "We are delighted that this finding of liability holds JG Staffing Inc. accountable for its theft and exonerates our own conduct in the eyes of the public. We look forward to returning the energy spent in this piece of litigation to our customers, employees, and products," stated TempWorks and ARA CEO, David Dourgarian. TempWorks and ARA were represented at trial by their general counsel, Mr. John H. Reid, and Mr. Daniel J. Cragg, a partner with Eckland & Blando LLP. For more information about TempWorks Software, please visit

Johnston C.,ARA Ltd. | Gould J.,ARA Ltd.
Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design | Year: 2010

During the ADIGMA project ARA have investigated various aspects relating to grid generation for higher-order solvers.Within the industrial hybrid mesh generation code SOLAR we have both implemented a higher-order boundary representation, and have propagated the influence of this boundary into the volume mesh. Although subject to some minor limitations, this capability has a near industrial level of robustness and has successfully generated grids for a variety of geometries of industrial interest, including the ONERA M6 wing and DLR-F6 wing-body. A mesh-quality toolkit for analysis of the SOLAR higher-order grids has been developed. This code has a modular design, to allow for simple implementation of new metrics, and currently includes a number of metrics which have been used to analyse the grids generated within the project. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Johnston C.,ARA Ltd | Barnes S.,ARA Ltd
Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design | Year: 2015

Within the IDIHOM project, ARA have worked to develop a high-order grid generation capability that allows the generation of meshes on three dimensional aircraft configurations typical of the complexity currently used in industrial finite volume simulations. Details of this capability are provided alongside examples of meshes generated using it and a discussion of its strengths and limitations. We conclude by considering the ways in which this existing capability may be further enhanced to provide a fully industrialised capability. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

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