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Jantunen L.M.,Environment Canada | Wong F.,University of Stockholm | Gawor A.,Environment Canada | Kylin H.,Linkoping University | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Bulte G.,Carleton University | Robinson S.A.,Carleton University | Forbes M.R.,Carleton University | Marcogliese D.J.,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division
EcoHealth | Year: 2012

As the number of invasive species increases globally, more and more native predators are reported to shift their diet toward invasive prey. The consequences of such diet shifts for the health of populations of native predators are poorly studied, but diet shifts are expected to have important parasitological and immunological consequences, ultimately affecting predator fitness. We reviewed evidence that diet shifts from native to invasive prey can alter parasite exposure directly and also indirectly affect immune functions via changes in condition and contaminant exposure. We highlight relevant conceptual and methodological tools that should be used for the design of experiments aimed at exploring important links between invasive prey and parasitism, contaminants and fitness of their native predators. © 2012 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source


Locke S.A.,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division | McLaughlin J.D.,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division | McLaughlin J.D.,Concordia University at Montreal | Lapierre A.R.,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Because the taxonomy of trematodes is based on adults, the larval stages of most digeneans cannot be identified to species based on morphology alone. Molecular data provide a means of linking larval stages to known adults. We obtained sequences from the barcode region of cytochrome oxidase I (CO1) from adult and larval parasites of fish, frogs, birds, and mammals across North America. Sequences from adult Apharyngostrigea cornu, Hysteromorpha triloba, and Alaria mustelae (Diplostomoidea: Digenea) from definitive hosts matched those of meta- and mesocercariae from fish and frogs. These data provided new information on the distributions of all 3 parasite species. Metacercariae of A. cornu, which have not been previously reported in North American hosts, were found in Notemigonus crysoleucas, Pimephales notatus, and Catostomus commersonii in the St. Lawrence River. Metacercariae of H. triloba are reported in Canadian waters and in N. hudsonius for the first time. Alaria mustelae is reported for the first time in frogs from Quebec, Canada, and an additional species of Alaria was detected in California. Sequences of internal transcribed spacer rDNA from a subset of specimens support the same species boundaries indicated by CO1 divergence. There was little divergence in CO1 sequences from an unidentified diplostomid species sampled at a large spatial scale. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists. Source


Caffara M.,University of Bologna | Locke S.A.,University of Bologna | Locke S.A.,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division | Gustinelli A.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

The separation of Clinostomum complanatum Rudolphi, 1814 and Clinostomum marginatum Rudolphi, 1819 has long been unclear. Recent data confirm the validity of the junior species, C. marginatum, by ∼1% differences in its 18S rDNA sequences. We collected adults and metacercariae of C. complanatum and C. marginatum and found reliable morphological differences in the genital complex at both developmental stages. In addition, we identified basic morphometrics (distance between suckers, body width) in metacercariae that may be useful for discriminating the species. The morphological differences were supported by the comparison of sequences of internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA and of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) from 39 specimens. In 36 specimens, the average divergence between the species was 7.3% in ITS and 19.4% in COI sequences. Two specimens from North America and 1 from Europe had sequences that did not allow them to be clearly allied with either species. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists. Source


Krause R.J.,McGill University | McLaughlin J.D.,Concordia University at Montreal | Marcogliese D.J.,Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

Parasite communities were examined in johnny darters (Etheostoma nigrum) collected from five localities in the St. Lawrence River in southwestern Quebec: two reference localities, one polluted locality upstream of the Island of Montreal and downstream of industrial and agricultural activity, and two polluted localities downstream of the Island of Montreal in the plume from the wastewater treatment facility. Twenty-four helminth species were found. Fish from the upstream polluted locality had the highest parasite species richness and total parasite numbers, and fish from the downstream polluted localities the lowest. Nonmetric multivariate analyses were conducted using square-root-transformed Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index. An analysis of similarity, dendrogram of centroids, and a permutational multivariate analysis of variance with contrasts all showed that fish from the reference localities had different parasite community composition than those from the polluted localities, and fish from the upstream polluted locality had different parasite communities than fish from the downstream polluted localities. Differences between reference and polluted localities were mainly due to higher abundances of the brain-encysting trematode, Ornithodiplostomum sp., at the reference localities. Differences between upstream and downstream polluted localities were mainly due to a higher diversity and abundance of trematodes in fish at the upstream locality. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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