Lee H.-B.,Aquatic Contaminants Research Branch |
Kohli J.,Aquatic Contaminants Research Branch |
Peart T.E.,Aquatic Contaminants Research Branch |
Nguyen N.,Aquatic Contaminants Research Branch
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014
The occurrence of triclosan (TCS), a general purpose antibacterial agent contained in numerous consumer and personal-care products, in the aquatic environment is well known. To a lesser degree, the formation of chlorinated and brominated derivatives of TCS during the chlorination of the antibacterial has also been reported. Presumably due to the lack of authentic standards, very few reports have been published on the levels of these halogenated TCSs in the environment. For this purpose, we have synthesized six selected halogenated derivatives of TCS, namely, 3-Cl-, 5-Cl-, 3,5-Cl2-, 3-Br-, 5-Br-, and 3,5-Br2- TCSs, with supporting 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) data for their structural assignments. Using these model compounds together with sensitive analytical methods, we were able to identify and quantify the above compounds together with their precursor compound TCS in Canadian municipal wastewater and biosolid samples for the first time. While detected in all influent (range from 1.4 to 24.1 ng L-1) and biosolid (range from 7.7 to 274 ng g-1) samples, the concentrations of these chlorinated TCS were generally from 100- to 1,000-fold lower than TCS in the same sample. Even lower levels (<20 ng/g in 85 % of the results) of brominated TCS were found in biosolids, and they were mostly undetected in sewage. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.