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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 10.66M | Year: 2010

IPCC climate change scenarios have a global perspective and need to be scaled down to the local level, where decision makers have to balance risks and investment costs. Very high investments might be a waste of money and too little investment could result in unacceptable risk for the local community. PREPARED is industry driven, 12 city utilities are involved in the project and the RDT carried out is based on the impacts of climate change the water supply and sanitation industry has identifed as a challenge for the years to come. The result of PREPARED will be an infrastructure for waste water, drinking water and storm water management that will not only be able better cope with new scenarios on climate change but that is also managed in a optimal way. We will have complexes monitoring and sensor systems, better integration and handling of complex data, better exploitation of existing infrastructures through improved real time control, new design concepts and guidelines for more flexible and more robust infrastructures. PREPARED will involve the local community in problem identification and in jointly finding acceptable system solutions, that are supported by all, through active learning processes. Activities and solutions in PREPARED will be based on a risk assessment and risk management approach for the whole urban water cycle, through the development of innovative Water Cycle Safety Plans. Other innovations are sensors and models that will enable faster and better actions on changes and new design rules for more resilient design. We will combine European knowledge with valuable knowledge from Australia and the USA, to make the European Water sector more competitive. This to enable our industrial partners to export the products developed in PREPARED to other regions of the world, thus contributing to the Lisbon Goals but also to the MDGs. To ensure this exploitation the PREPARED consortium consist of more than 50% industrial partners and is demand driven.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2010

PROMETHEUS aims to treat high organic load high temperature (85C), and high salinity industrial waste waters containing recalcitrant contaminants originating from injection/extrusion and post-washing processes in aluminium and rubber parts production industries. PROMETHEUS waste water treatment system treats these waste waters obtaining a final effluent meeting discharge requirements plus high purity water and chemicals (demoulding agent used in injection/extrusion processes) recovery for re-use plus a 99% reduction of waste production needing off-site treatment. There is no system in the market allowing for this. There is a competitive opportunity to export a new technology that addresses all these issues. There is pre-existing work done by members of the consortium on a batch system consisting in membrane filtration (UF/NF), reverse osmosis, and innovative evaporator units. The system has worked with waste water from rubber industries producing parts for the automotive industry. There is a need for further development of the system since it has only operated in batch and with one type of waste water. Adaption to other types of waste water will require studies on types of membranes and evaporators. There is also a need for controlling and modelling the system on a continuous mode and a cost-efficiency analysis. PROMETHEUS solution for waste water from injection/extrusion and washing processes in aluminium and rubber parts producing industries treatment results in a 99.5% water recovery for re-use in the plant (high quality water for even cooling towers use) and a 99% decrease in waste produced that needs off-site treatment. These figures result in the obvious environmental and economic (63% cost reduction compared to current waste water treatment systems use in the sectors) positive impacts. Expected benefits of the solution to the industrial waste water treatment sector are estimated to be 84.8 M of sales revenue after year 5 of commercialisation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.21M | Year: 2010

The development of a Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) system, that will efficiently target and incapacitate a full spectrum of marine organisms <50m. The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments from discharge of ships ballast water has been identified as the 4th largest threat to the worlds oceans. The UNs International Maritime Organisation has adopted a convention for a mandatory BWT system on both new and existing ships by 2016. Unlike other forms of marine pollution, such as oil spills, where ameliorative action can be taken and from which the environment will eventually recover, the impacts of invasive marine species are often irreversible. In addition, with 80% of the worlds commodities transported by sea, there is an environmental and commercial need to develop an effective solution to the dispersal of untreated ballast water. In the proposed Atlantis project, we intend to research and develop a BWT system using multi-biocidal delivery technology. This will efficiently target and incapacitate a full spectrum of marine organisms <50m. We propose to develop a high surface-area substrate with multi-functional surface properties, enabling multiple biocides to be incorporated. This substrate will be designed into a filter bed that the entire volume of ballast water must pass through. Therefore, treatment of the ballast water happens as it moves through the high concentration of biocides held within the filter bed. As the biocides are held within the substrate, they can work effectively together, incapacitating the full spectrum of flora and fauna, whilst significantly reducing the amount of biocides released in the ballast system. This project will be conducted by an EC based SME consortium supported by two RTDs, who will work towards developing a market leading system that could generate sales in excess of 80 million in 5 years after the project ends and increase profits across the SME consortium.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.45M | Year: 2014

A large amount of wastewater in the form of oil-in-water is generated in different industries such as olive mills, metal processing and offshore oil and gas. The wastewater treatment equipment market was worth >1 billion in 2010. All the industries face the same problems: to separate emulsified oil from water in a cost-effective way and to handle large volumes of oily waste in an economical way. Among available technologies membrane processes exhibit undisputable advantages over the conventional approaches, especially in treatment of highly emulsified oily wastewater. The O-WaR project aims to develop an integrated process able to efficiently remove emulsified oil from wastewater, to reuse treated water, to recover by-products in wastewater and to reduce volumes of oily waste for disposal. Our solution consists of a SiC membrane coated with an anti-fouling layer, an Induced Gas Flotation (IGF) unit for membrane concentrate treatment and a NF/RO unit for purification of SiC permeate and/or valuable by-products recovery from wastewater. The O-WaR technology will be able to remove >99% of oil, solids and chemical oxygen demand, making treated oily wastewaters to easily meet discharge or reuse requirements, and produce <2% oily waste for off-site disposal, greatly reducing waste disposal cost. In the case of olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment the O-WaR technology can effectively recover valuable by-products in OMW and create high values (up to 700/kg of recovered small phenolics for functional food, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals) for the industry. With the O-WaR technology we expect an annual profit of 1.4 million generated in an OMW treatment plant (20,000 m3/year capacity) and a total annual OPEX savings of 0.17 million for a metal processing factory with 20,000 m3/year wastewater produced compared to using a conventional technology. Also, the SMEs in this project are predicted to have a market opportunity of 11.7 million in first 5 years post project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.35M | Year: 2011

Microalgae has been researched and cultivated commercially for human and animal nutrition, for cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications, for biofuels and biomass production, for wastewater treatment and to some extent for greenhouse gas abatement. The production for the microalgal biomass market today alone generates a turnover of 1.25 billion US$ per year (0.94 billion /yr) while the total algal world market is about 7-7.5 billion US$ per year (5.2-5.7 billion /yr) and is growing, with European Union being home to 30% of this worlds algae market activity. The most critical challenge faced by all algae growers is harvesting. Harvesting is expensive and energy intensive. A group of European SMEs (Salsnes, Asio and Inwatec) has decided to work together to capture a part of the global algae harvesting equipment market. The objective is to develop a universal algae harvesting technology by building on their experiences gained from removing particles from wastewater and by modifying wastewater treatment technologies to harvest algae. Salsnes Water to Algae Treatment (SWAT) technology will use a flocculator followed by a Salsnes Filter to harvest algae. Two RTDs (Aquateam and HERI) will carry out research and development to achieve the objective. Two test sites have been chosen (IGV in Germany and Aqualia in Spain) to test the SWAT technology. The SWAT technology will result in 95% algae recovery, 40% lower costs than the best state of the art technologies (Centrifuge and Dissolved Air Flotation) and energy consumption < 0.08 kWh/m3 of algae. The consortium will explore the SWAT technology in the growing biofuel market (which has a projection of 1.6 billion US$ or 1.2 billion Euros by 2015) and then in other algae markets.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.07M | Year: 2011

In recent years, word of aircraft water quality issues has spread, generating negative media coverage, attracting the attention of regulators worldwide, and giving airline passengers a new cause for concern. Health enforcement agencies are currently in the process of drafting new, more stringent quality regulations for aircraft potable water and the worlds other regulators will follow suit. Aircraft potable water is typically loaded from municipal systems which are susceptible to contamination. While municipal water quality has always been a concern in some parts of the world, it is now becoming an issue in North America as well. As recent outbreaks of waterborne disease in carries Canada and the US illustrate, dependence on any municipal water supply carries an inherent risk. Even when the source water is clean, contamination can make its way into a water supply during ground handling because of contaminated water trucks, contaminated hoses, or from improper handling procedures by ramp crew. The aircraft water system itself can be the source of contamination. Microorganisms can grow within the water tanks, water lines, and even the water filters. This situation is exacerbated by the standard, air pressurized water systems that allow water to remain still in the tank and distribution lines until a faucet is opened and the water begins to move. Bacteria thrive in such conditions, which also encourage bacterial regrowth almost immediately after system cleaning. The present project aims to provide an advanced treatment system which will make use of core/sheath polymer nanofibres which are filled with biocidal substances. This will provide a way of maintaining a constant level of biocide in the water without the need to dose or measure the quantities present. In addition the nanofibres will provide a means of physical entrapment for viruses.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.54M | Year: 2011

Ballast Water poses a significant threat to the environment since it contains invasive species which are discharged to sea. The cost for controlling invasive species is very high (9.6 - 12.7 billion). Prevention is better, hence the IMO introduced standards in 2004 (due to come into force). The Convention requires ships to have Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) system installed by 2016. BWT is an evolving technology. However, it is generally accepted across industry that viable BWT consist of at least 2 stages targeting both macro and micro IS separately. Filtration is generally as the 1st stage and according to a Lloyd register survey and one we conducted ourselves, UV seem to be relatively the most preferred 2nd stage treatment as the water treated by UV seems to have the least effect on the environment and the ship. UV treated water is less likely to cause corrosion of the ballast tanks compared to other commonly used treatment such as Electrolysis. However, they have the highest operation cost/m3 and their performance can be affected by water turbidity and frigidity. Hence, as UV is the most preferred and with the highest cost of ownership, the rest of the market will migrate towards UV systems if effort can be made to reduce the ownership cost and overall performance issues for a given water turbidity and frigidity level. The highest cost for UV is energy needed for a given dose, maintenance and replacement of UV lamps. We have identified a way we would be able to reduce the operation cost of using UV still with a high efficacy under difficult water conditions. The UV-Mon project will aim to develop an integrated and modular BWT system that intelligently combines a novel electromagnetic wave generated UV plasma treatment system with information from a bio-monitoring system (micro-organisms concentration level and water quality/turbidity indicator) in order to optimise the UV dosage required at filling/discharge to completely eliminate the viable micro-organisms.

Yuan X.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Kumar A.,Pollution Prevention and Control Core | Sahu A.K.,Aquateam Norwegian Water Technology Center | Ergas S.J.,University of South Florida
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Spirulina platensis was cultivated in a bench-scale airlift photobioreactor using synthetic wastewater (total nitrogen 412mgL-1, total phosphorous 90mgL-1, pH 9-10) with varying ammonia/total nitrogen ratios (50-100% ammonia with balance nitrate) and hydraulic residence times (15-25d). High average biomass density (3500-3800mgL-1) and productivity (5.1gm-2d-1) were achieved when ammonia was maintained at 50% of the total nitrogen. Both high ammonia concentrations and mutual self-shading, which resulted from the high biomass density in the airlift reactor, were found to partially inhibit the growth of S. platensis. The performance of the airlift bioreactor used in this study compared favorably with other published studies. The system has good potential for treatment of high strength wastewater combined with production of algae for biofuels or other products, such as human and animal food, food supplements or pharmaceuticals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang M.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Sahu A.K.,Aquateam Norwegian Water Technology Center | Rusten B.,Aquateam Norwegian Water Technology Center | Park C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

The study investigated the growth characteristics of environmental algal strain, Chlorella, in the modified Zarrouk medium and its anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge (WAS). Analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in algal culture and WAS indicated that Chlorella secreted more EPS into the surrounding liquid than formed floc-associated EPS as in activated sludge. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of algae alone required extended digestion period to produce methane, with biogas yield at 262mL/gVSfed after 45days of digestion. When algae was co-digested with varying amounts of WAS, 59-96% in mass, not only biogas yield of microalgae improved but the gas phase was reached more quickly. The dewaterability of co-digestion products were also better than two controls digesting WAS or algae only. These results suggest that anaerobic co-digestion of algae and sludge improves the digestibility of microalgae and could also bring synergistic effects on the dewaterability of digested products for existing anaerobic digesters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Rusten B.,Aquateam Norwegian Water Technology Center | Sahu A.K.,Aquateam Norwegian Water Technology Center
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated for a process that will utilize nutrients from sludge liquor, natural light, and CO 2 from biogas to grow microalgae at wastewater treatment plants. This process will reduce the impact of returning side-streams to the head of the plant. The produced algae will be fed to anaerobic digesters for increased biogas production. Dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge in centrifuges produces reject water with extremely low transmittance of light. A pre-treatment procedure was developed that improved light transmittance for reject water from the FREVAR, Norway, wastewater treatment plant from 0.1% T to 77% T (670 nm, 1 cm path). Chlorella sp. microalgae were found to be suitable for growth in this pre-treated reject water. Typical nitrogen removal was 80-90 g N/kg TSS of produced microalgae. The microalgae were successfully harvested by chemically assisted flocculation followed by straining through a 33 μm sieve cloth, achieving up to 99% recovery. Harvested algae were anaerobically co-digested with wastewater sludge. The specific methane gas production (mL CH 4/g VS fed) for the algae varied from less than 65% to 90% of the specific methane gas production for the wastewater sludge, depending on digester temperature, retention time and pre-treatment of the algae biomass. © IWA Publishing 2011.

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