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Hwang H.-T.,Aquanty Inc. | Park Y.-J.,Aquanty Inc. | Frey S.K.,Aquanty Inc. | Berg S.J.,Aquanty Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

This work presents an iterative, water balance based approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) with integrated surface/subsurface flow models. Traditionally, groundwater level fluctuation methods have been widely accepted and used for estimating ET and net groundwater recharge; however, in watersheds where interactions between surface and subsurface flow regimes are highly dynamic, the traditional method may be overly simplistic. Here, an innovative methodology is derived and demonstrated for using the water balance equation in conjunction with a fully-integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic model (HydroGeoSphere) in order to estimate ET at watershed and sub-watershed scales. The method invokes a simple and robust iterative numerical solution. For the proof of concept demonstrations, the method is used to estimate ET for a simple synthetic watershed and then for a real, highly-characterized 7000km2 watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada (Grand River Watershed). The results for the Grand River Watershed show that with three to five iterations, the solution converges to a result where there is less than 1% relative error in stream flow calibration at 16 stream gauging stations. The spatially-averaged ET estimated using the iterative method shows a high level of agreement (R2=0.99) with that from a benchmark case simulated with an ET model embedded directly in HydroGeoSphere. The new approach presented here is applicable to any watershed that is suited for integrated surface water/groundwater flow modelling and where spatially-averaged ET estimates are useful for calibrating modelled stream discharge. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Berg S.J.,University of Waterloo | Berg S.J.,Aquanty Inc. | Illman W.A.,University of Waterloo
Groundwater | Year: 2015

Over the past several decades, different groundwater modeling approaches of various complexities and data use have been developed. A recently developed approach for mapping hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) heterogeneity is hydraulic tomography, the performance of which has not been compared to other more "traditional" methods that have been utilized over the past several decades. In this study, we compare seven methods of modeling heterogeneity which are (1) kriging, (2) effective parameter models, (3) transition probability/Markov Chain geostatistics models, (4) geological models, (5) stochastic inverse models conditioned to local K data, (6) hydraulic tomography, and (7) hydraulic tomography conditioned to local K data using data collected in five boreholes at a field site on the University of Waterloo (UW) campus, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. The performance of each heterogeneity model is first assessed during model calibration. In particular, the correspondence between simulated and observed drawdowns is assessed using the mean absolute error norm, (L1), mean square error norm (L2), and correlation coefficient (R) as well as through scatterplots. We also assess the various models on their ability to predict drawdown data not used in the calibration effort from nine pumping tests. Results reveal that hydraulic tomography is best able to reproduce these tests in terms of the smallest discrepancy and highest correlation between simulated and observed drawdowns. However, conditioning of hydraulic tomography results with permeameter K data caused a slight deterioration in accuracy of drawdown predictions which suggests that data integration may need to be conducted carefully. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

Hwang H.-T.,University of Waterloo | Hwang H.-T.,Aquanty Inc. | Park Y.-J.,University of Waterloo | Park Y.-J.,Aquanty Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2014

Hydrologic modeling requires the handling of a wide range of highly nonlinear processes from the scale of a hill slope to the continental scale, and thus the computational efficiency of the model becomes a critical issue for water resource management. This work is aimed at implementing and evaluating a flexible parallel computing framework for hydrologic simulations by applying OpenMP in the HydroGeoSphere (HGS) model. HGS is a 3D control-volume finite element model that solves the nonlinear coupled equations describing surface-subsurface water flow, solute migration and energy transport. The computing efficiency of HGS is improved by three parallel computing schemes: 1) parallelization of Jacobian matrix assembly, 2) multi-block node reordering for performing LU solve efficiently, and 3) parameter privatization for reducing memory access latency. Regarding to the accuracy and consistency of the simulation solutions obtained with parallel computing, differences in the solutions are entirely due to use of a finite linear solver iteration tolerance, which produces slightly different solutions which satisfy the convergence tolerance. The maximum difference in the head solution between the serial and parallel simulations is less than 10-3m, using typical convergence tolerances. Using the parallel schemes developed in this work, three key achievements can be summarized: (1) parallelization of a physically-based hydrologic simulator can be performed in a manner that allows the same code to be executed on various shared memory platforms with minimal maintenance; (2) a general, flexible and robust parallel iterative sparse-matrix solver can be implemented in a wide range of numerical models employing either structured or unstructured mesh; and (3) the methodology is flexible, especially for the efficient construction of the coefficient and Jacobian matrices, compared to other parallelized hydrologic models which use parallel library packages. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hwang H.-T.,University of Waterloo | Hwang H.-T.,Aquanty Inc | Park Y.-J.,University of Waterloo | Park Y.-J.,Aquanty Inc | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2013

This study presents a multiphase flow and multispecies reactive transport model for the simultaneous simulation of NAPL and groundwater flow, dissolution, and reactive transport with isotope fractionation, which can be used for better interpretation of NAPL-involved Compound Specific Isotope Analysis in 3D heterogeneous hydrogeologic systems. The model was verified for NAPL-aqueous phase equilibrium partitioning, aqueous phase multi-chain and multi-component reactive transport, and aqueous phase multi-component transport with isotope fractionation. Several illustrative examples are presented to investigate the effect of DNAPL spill rates, degradation rate constants, and enrichment factors on the temporal and spatial distribution of the isotope signatures of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon groundwater plumes. The results clearly indicate that isotope signatures can be significantly different when considering multiphase flow within the source zone. A series of simulations indicate that degradation and isotope enrichment compete with dissolution to determine the isotope signatures in the source zone: isotope ratios remain the same as those of the source if dissolution dominates the reaction, while heavy isotopes are enriched in reactants along groundwater plume flow paths when degradation becomes dominant. It is also shown that NAPL composition can change from that of the injected source due to the partitioning of components between the aqueous and NAPL phases even when degradation is not allowed in NAPL phase. The three-dimensional simulation is presented to mechanistically illustrate the complexities in determining and interpreting the isotopic signatures with evolving DNAPL source architecture. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Frey S.K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Frey S.K.,Aquanty Inc. | Gottschall N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wilkes G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2015

When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha-1. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Zhao Z.,University of Waterloo | Illman W.A.,University of Waterloo | Yeh T.-C.J.,University of Arizona | Berg S.J.,University of Waterloo | And 2 more authors.
Water Resources Research | Year: 2015

In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hydraulic tomography (HT) that considers variably saturated flow processes in mapping the heterogeneity of both the saturated and unsaturated zones in a laboratory unconfined aquifer. The successive linear estimator (SLE) developed by Mao et al. (2013c) for interpreting HT in unconfined aquifers is utilized to obtain tomograms of hydraulic conductivity (K), specific storage (Ss), and the unsaturated zone parameters (pore size parameter (α) and saturated water content (θs)) for the Gardner-Russo's model. The estimated tomograms are first evaluated by visually comparing them with stratigraphy visible in the sandbox. Results reveal that the HT analysis is able to accurately capture the location and extent of heterogeneity including high and low K layers within the saturated and unsaturated zones, as well as reasonable distribution patterns of α and θs for the Gardner-Russo's model. We then validate the estimated tomograms through predictions of drawdown responses of pumping tests not used during the inverse modeling effort. The strong agreement between simulated and observed drawdown curves obtained by pressure transducers and tensiometers demonstrates the robust performance of HT that considers variably saturated flow processes in unconfined aquifers and the unsaturated zone above it. In addition, compared to the case using the homogeneous assumption, HT results, as expected, yield significantly better predictions of drawdowns in both the saturated and unsaturated zones. This comparison further substantiates the unbiased and minimal variance of HT analysis with the SLE algorithm. Key Points: Hydraulic tomography can characterize the unconfined aquifer quite well Estimated tomograms accurately predict the drawdown responses Considering unconfined aquifer heterogeneity yields improved prediction © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Hwang H.-T.,Aquanty Inc. | Hwang H.-T.,University of Waterloo | Jeen S.-W.,Chonbuk National University | Sudicky E.A.,University of Waterloo | Illman W.A.,University of Waterloo
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2015

Abstract The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Callaghan M.V.,Aquanty Inc. | Cey E.E.,University of Calgary | Bentley L.R.,University of Calgary
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2016

Soil saturated paste extract (SPE) electrical conductivity (ECe) and sodium adsorption ratio (SARe) are widely used measures of soluble salts used to evaluate the salinity hazard to crop growth and the sodicity hazard to soil permeability. In gypsum-bearing soils, sparingly soluble gypsum dissolves during preparation of the SPE as a result of soil water dilution. This produces a higher measured ECe and lower SARe than would be measured if only fieldsoluble gypsum were present. As part of a soil remediation project, samples were collected from the location of a former oil and gas production facility with highly saline-sodic, brine-affected soils. The naturally calcareous silt loam soil with a smectitic clay fraction was previously amended with gypsum to mitigate elevated sodicity, of concern for sodic effects on soil permeability. The equilibrium geochemical modeling software program ExtractChem was used to model ECe and SARe in the absence of excess gypsum dissolution by first modeling EC and SAR at field water content and then modeling ECe and SARe at saturated paste water content while excluding gypsum from the modeled reaction. For samples with measured ECe <3 dS m-1, ECe modeled in the absence of excess gypsum dissolution was up to 52% lower than measured, and for samples with measured SARe <2, modeled SARe was up to 53% higher than measured. As remediation progressed, and ECe and SARe decreased toward target values, the magnitude of the excess gypsum effect was sufficient to affect the evaluation of remedial progress. Equilibrium geochemical modeling adjustment of ECe and SARe for gypsum dissolution that occurs as a result of SPE preparation is recommended to improve the evaluation of the progress of remediation of gypsum-bearing, salt-affected soil. © Soil Science Society of America, 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison WI 53711 USA. All Rights reserved.

Sunohara M.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gottschall N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Craiovan E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wilkes G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

Drainage water management such as controlled tile drainage (CTD) is one means to help meet pollution mitigation targets and boost crop yields. In this study, CTD was retrofit to existing tile drained fields in eastern Ontario, Canada (humid continental climate) to study water quality benefits. A suite of paired field systems were used to compare CTD tile drainage quality with conventional tile drainage quality for nine growing seasons (2005–2013), translating to 35 field-crop years. Field crops were corn, soybean and forage. For CTD fields, controlled tile drainage was employed only during the growing season (time period when comparisons were made) due to surface runoff/erosion and growing season length concerns associated with non-growing season flow control. Water quality targets in tile effluent included: nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphorus, and fecal indicator bacteria such as E. coli, and Enterococci. Respectively, there were 60, 51, 58, 66, 66, 76, and 25% reductions in above noted drainage water fluxes and water quality targets as a result of CTD (for all 35 field-crop years combined). Concurrent environmental and potential public health benefits of managing tile drainage during the growing season were demonstrated; moreover, over the course of the study, corn and soybean yields were significantly boosted by CTD. © 2016

Aquanty Inc. | Date: 2013-05-16

computer software tools and models used to analyze and manage the complex interplay between atmospheric water, surface water and groundwater and to solve the worlds water resource problems. consulting services with respect to the worlds water resources.

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