AquaGen

Trondheim, Norway
Trondheim, Norway

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Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a member of the family Birnaviridae that has been linked to high mortalities in juvenile salmonids and postsmolt stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) after transfer to seawater. IPN vaccines have been available for a long time but their efficacy has been variable. The reason for the varying immune response to these vaccines has not well defined and studies on the importance of using vaccine trains homologous to the virulent field strain has not been conclusive. In this study we prepared one vaccine identical to the virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI-015 (NCBI: 379740) (T217A221T247 of VP2) and three other vaccine strains developed using the same genomic backbone altered by reverse genetics at three residues yielding variants, T217T221T247, P217A221A247, P217T221A247. These 4 strains, differing in these three positions only, were used as inactivated, oil-adjuvanted vaccines while two strains, T217A221T247 and P217T221A247, were used as live vaccines. The results show that these three residues of the VP2 capsid play a key role for immunogenicity of IPNV vaccines. The virulent strain for inactivated vaccines elicited the highest level of virus neutralization (VN) titers and ELISA antibodies. Interestingly, differences in immunogenicity were not reflected in differences in post challenge survival percentages (PCSP) for oil-adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines but clearly so for live vaccines (TAT and PTA). Further post challenge viral carrier state correlated inversely with VN titers at challenge for inactivated vaccines and prevalence of pathology in target organs inversely correlated with protection for live vaccines. Overall, our findings show that a few residues localized on the VP2-capsid are important for immunogenicity of IPNV vaccines. © 2013 Munang'andu et al.


PubMed | J. Craig Venter Institute, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, University of Maryland University College, Temple University and 16 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2016

The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find that genes that were retained as duplicates after the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320 million years ago were not more likely to be retained after the Ss4R, and that the duplicate retention was not influenced to a great extent by the nature of the predicted protein interactions of the gene products. Finally, we demonstrate that the Atlantic salmon assembly can serve as a reference sequence for the study of other salmonids for a range of purposes.


PubMed | University of Turku, AquaGen, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, University of Edinburgh and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2015

Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on population management in a range of harvested species where trends towards earlier maturation have been observed.


Munang'andu H.M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Santi N.,AquaGen | Fredriksen B.N.,PHARMAQ AS | Lokling K.-E.,PHARMAQ AS | Evensen O.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p<0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1×107TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate mortality >75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use in evaluating the efficacy of different vaccines used in aquaculture. © 2016 Munang'andu et al.


Moen T.,AquaGen | Torgersen J.,AquaGen | Santi N.,AquaGen | Davidson W.S.,Simon Fraser University | And 8 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2015

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the cause of one of the most prevalent diseases in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been found to be responsible for most of the genetic variation in resistance to the virus. Here we describe how a linkage disequilibrium-based test for deducing the QTL allele was developed, and how it was used to produce IPN-resistant salmon, leading to a 75% decrease in the number of IPN outbreaks in the salmon farming industry. Furthermore, we describe how whole-genome sequencing of individuals with deduced QTL genotypes was used to map the QTL down to a region containing an epithelial cadherin (cdh1) gene. In a coimmunoprecipitation assay, the Cdh1 protein was found to bind to IPNV virions, strongly indicating that the protein is part of the machinery used by the virus for internalization. Immunofluorescence revealed that the virus colocalizes with IPNV in the endosomes of homozygous susceptible individuals but not in the endosomes of homozygous resistant individuals. A putative causal single nucleotide polymorphism was found within the full-length cdh1 gene, in phase with the QTL in all observed haplotypes except one; the absence of a single, all-explaining DNA polymorphism indicates that an additional causative polymorphism may contribute to the observed QTL genotype patterns. Cdh1 has earlier been shown to be necessary for the internalization of certain bacteria and fungi, but this is the first time the protein is implicated in internalization of a virus. © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.


PubMed | AquaGen, Vaxxinova, Nofima, Simon Fraser University and Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics | Year: 2015

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the cause of one of the most prevalent diseases in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been found to be responsible for most of the genetic variation in resistance to the virus. Here we describe how a linkage disequilibrium-based test for deducing the QTL allele was developed, and how it was used to produce IPN-resistant salmon, leading to a 75% decrease in the number of IPN outbreaks in the salmon farming industry. Furthermore, we describe how whole-genome sequencing of individuals with deduced QTL genotypes was used to map the QTL down to a region containing an epithelial cadherin (cdh1) gene. In a coimmunoprecipitation assay, the Cdh1 protein was found to bind to IPNV virions, strongly indicating that the protein is part of the machinery used by the virus for internalization. Immunofluorescence revealed that the virus colocalizes with IPNV in the endosomes of homozygous susceptible individuals but not in the endosomes of homozygous resistant individuals. A putative causal single nucleotide polymorphism was found within the full-length cdh1 gene, in phase with the QTL in all observed haplotypes except one; the absence of a single, all-explaining DNA polymorphism indicates that an additional causative polymorphism may contribute to the observed QTL genotype patterns. Cdh1 has earlier been shown to be necessary for the internalization of certain bacteria and fungi, but this is the first time the protein is implicated in internalization of a virus.


PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PHARMAQ AS and AquaGen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p<0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x10(7) TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate mortality >75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use in evaluating the efficacy of different vaccines used in aquaculture.

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