AquAeTer Inc.

Centennial, CO, United States

AquAeTer Inc.

Centennial, CO, United States
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Bolin C.A.,AquAeTer Inc. | Smith S.,AquAeTer Inc.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2011

A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment was done to identify the environmental impacts related to alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ)-treated lumber used for decking and to determine how the impacts compare to the primary alternative product, wood plastic composite (WPC) decking. A model of ACQ-treated lumber life cycle stages was created and used to calculate inputs and outputs during the lumber production, treating, use, and disposal stages. Lumber production data are based on published sources. Primary wood preservative treatment data were obtained by surveying wood treatment facilities in the United States. Product use and disposal inventory data are based on published data and professional judgment. Life cycle inventory inputs, outputs, and impact indicators for ACQ-treated lumber were quantified using functional units of 1000 board feet and per representative deck (assumed to be 320 square feet (30 square meters) of surface decking material) per year of use. In a similar manner, an inventory model was developed for the manufacture, use, and disposal of the primary alternative product, WPC. Impact indicator values, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fossil fuel use, water use, acidification, smog forming potential, ecological toxicity, and eutrophication were quantified for each of the two decking products. National normalization was done to compare the significance of a representative deck surface per year of use to a family's total annual impact footprint. If an average U.S. family adds or replaces a deck surfaced with ACQ-treated lumber, their impact "footprint" for GHG emissions, fossil fuel use, acidification, smog forming potential, ecological toxicity, and eutrophication releases each is less than one-tenth of a percent of the family's annual impact. ACQ-treated lumber impacts were fourteen times less for fossil fuel use, almost three times less for GHG emissions, potential smog emissions, and water use, four times less for acidification, and almost half for ecological toxicity than those for WPC decking. Impacts were approximately equal for eutrophication. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bolin C.A.,AquAeTer Inc. | Smith S.T.,AquAeTer Inc.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2011

A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment was done to identify the environmental impacts related to borate-treated lumber used as structural framing and to determine how the impacts compare to the primary alternative product, galvanized steel framing members. Borate-treated lumber may be used for framing buildings in locations of high decay or termite hazard. A model of borate-treated lumber life cycle stages was created and used to calculate inputs and outputs during the lumber production, treating, use, and disposal stages. Lumber production data are based on published sources. Primary wood preservative treatment data were obtained by surveying wood treatment facilities in the United States. Product use and disposal inventory data are based on published data and professional judgment. Life cycle inputs, outputs, and impact indicators for borate-treated lumber were quantified using life cycle assessment LCA methodologies at functional units of 1000 board feet, 100 linear feet (30.5 linear meters) of structural perimeter wall framing, and framing required for the perimeter walls of one representative home. In a similar manner, a life cycle inventory model was developed for the manufacture, use, and disposal of the primary alternative product, galvanized steel framing, and comparisons were done using an equivalent measure of 100 linear feet of structural perimeter wall framing. Impact indicator values such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fossil fuel use, water use, acidification, ecological toxicity, smog forming potential, and eutrophication were quantified for each of the two framing products.National normalization was done to compare the significance of the framing in a representative U.S. family home to the family's total annual impact footprint. If a U.S. family of three builds a 2225 square feet (207 square meters) home using borate-treated lumber for structural perimeter wall framing, the framing impact "footprint" (normalized over the use life of the structure) for GHG emissions, fossil fuel use, acidification, ecological toxicity, smog forming potential, and eutrophication each is less than one-tenth of a percent of the family's annual overall impact. The cradle-to-grave life cycle impacts of borate-treated lumber framing were approximately four times less for fossil fuel use, 1.8 times less for GHGs, 83 times less for water use, 3.5 times less for acidification, 2.5 times less for ecological impact, 2.8 times less for smog formation, and 3.3 times less for eutrophication than those for galvanized steel framing. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bolin C.A.,AquAeTer Inc. | Smith S.T.,AquAeTer Inc.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) was done to identify the environmental impacts related to pentachlorophenol (penta)-treated wooden utility poles. Penta-treated utility poles commonly are used for electricity distribution and transmission, and telecommunications. In addition, this LCA has evaluated the opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts associated with penta-treated poles and has compared the penta-treated pole product to alternative products. A model of penta-treated utility pole life cycle stages was created and used to determine inputs and outputs during the pole production, treating, service life, and disposal stages. Pole production data are based on published sources. Primary wood preservative treatment data were obtained by surveying wood treatment facilities in the United States. Product service life and disposal inventory data are based on published data and professional judgment. Life cycle inventory inputs, outputs, and impact indicators for penta-treated utility poles were quantified per pole. In a similar manner, an inventory model was developed for the manufacture, service life, and disposal of the primary alternative products: steel and spun concrete utility poles. Impact indicator values, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fossil fuel and water use, and emissions with the potential to cause acidification, smog, ecological toxicity, and eutrophication were quantified for each of the pole products. The GHG, fossil fuel use, acidification, water use, eutrophication, and ecological toxicity impact indicator values for penta-treated poles are less than those for concrete poles. The GHG, fossil fuel use, acidification, water use, and ecological toxicity impact indicator values for penta-treated poles are less than those for steel poles. The values are about equal for eutrophication. The smog impact from penta-treated poles is greater than the smog impact from both concrete and steel poles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bolin C.A.,AquAeTer Inc. | Smith S.T.,AquAeTer Inc.
Journal of Marine Environmental Engineering | Year: 2012

A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment is done to identify the environmental impacts related to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated softwood used for marine piles in order to understand the processes that contribute to the total impacts and to determine how the impacts compare to those of the alternative products: concrete, galvanized steel, and plastic. Harbor and port authorities, as well as the public and regulatory interests, have increasing need to understand the environmental implications of marine piling material selection, in addition to factors such as cost and service performance. This study uses a life cycle inventory (LCI) to catalog the input and output data from marine pile manufacture, service life, and disposition, and a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) to evaluate environmental impact indicators including: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fossil fuel and water use, and emissions with the potential to cause acidification, smog, ecotoxicity, and eutrophication. Comparisons of pile products are made at a functional unit of one pile per year of service using primary manufacturing data for treated wood piles and representative data for the alternative products. This life cycle assessment (LCA) finds that the manufacture, use, and disposition of CCA-treated wood marine piles offers lower fossil fuel use and lesser LCIA indicators than competing products manufactured of concrete, galvanized steel, and plastic, while water use is lower for two of the three alternative products. Marine ecotoxicity evaluation was beyond the scope of this project and is best investigated using site specific modeling. © 2012 Old City Publishing, Inc.

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