Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes

Vid, Faroe Islands

Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes

Vid, Faroe Islands
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Eysturskard J.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | I Kongsstovu S.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Faero D.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Jacobsen A.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Joensen H.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Aquaculture International | Year: 2017

Fucoidans are sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides found in macroalgae. Multiple biological functions have been attributed to fucoidans including inhibitory activity against matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). A recent study showed that kidney and blood remains left in the abdominal cavity after gutting had a significant negative effect on gaping and fillet firmness in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The authors hypothesized that one reason could be that MMPs from kidney and blood remains break down the connective tissue in Atlantic salmon fillets. The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of MMPs in Atlantic salmon kidney and the inhibitory effect of a Fucus vesiculosus extract (FVE) on the proteolytic activity and gene expression of MMPs in Atlantic salmon. The inhibitory effect of FVE was compared to the inhibitory effect of the synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor marimastat. In this study, we found that FVE inhibits the proteolytic activity of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13 in Atlantic salmon kidney as well as MMP-2 gene expression in Atlantic salmon liver. Although the inhibitory effect of FVE on the proteolytic activity of MMPs is small compared to the inhibitory effect of marimastat, both FVE and marimastat inhibit 80% of the DQ-gelatin breakdown caused by Atlantic salmon kidney at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL−1. This indicates that FVE may also be capable of inhibiting other proteinases present in Atlantic salmon kidney. Overall, our findings suggest that FVE could be used in the fish processing industry to limit collagenase and gelatinase activity, thus reducing the connective tissue degradation in Atlantic salmon fillets. © 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Andersen O.,Nofima Marin | Andersen O.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | De Rosa M.C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Pirolli D.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations.Results: The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2), a melanotransferrin gene (MTf), and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp). Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles.Conclusions: The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest evidence for positive selection and local adaptation in trans-Atlantic cod populations. © 2011 Andersen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lehto N.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Lehto N.,Lancaster University | Glud R.N.,University of Southern Denmark | Glud R.N.,Scottish Association for Marine Science | And 5 more authors.
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2014

Spherical (~2 mm diameter) diatom (Skeletonema sp.) aggregates, representing analogues of "marine snow", were placed at the sediment-water interface of an experimental sediment system. Optode measurements showed that, after an initial lag period, oxygen concentrations within the aggregates decreased and then were gradually replenished, resulting in a temporary anoxic microniche. A multi-species, 3-dimensional, reactive transport model was used to simulate the oxygen dynamics and the associated biogeochemical consequences. Temporal and spatial changes in oxygen were replicated assuming an exponential increase in the mineralisation rate constant and a gradual exhaustion of reactive organic material. The peak value of the time-dependent reaction rate constant of organic matter mineralisation (k OMM) was seven to sixty times greater than analogous values measured previously in water column experiments. The validated model was used to investigate how the size and reactivity of parcels of organic matter influence the formation of anoxic microniches at the sediment-water interface of typical deep-sea environments. As well as k OMM, the concentration of reactive organic matter in the aggregate, its size and porosity were also critical in determining the likelihood of anoxic microniche formation. For the optimum fitted parameters describing k OMM and the concentration of reactive organic matter, the minimum diameter of the parcel to induce anoxia was 1.8 mm, whereas it was 2.8 mm to make a significant contribution to the denitrification occurring in a typical deep-sea sediment. This work suggests that anoxic microniches resulting from the settlement of marine aggregates may play an overlooked role for denitrification activities in deep-sea sediments. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Gislason H.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Karstensen H.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Christiansen D.,Faroese Food and Veterinary Agency | Hjelde K.,Nofima Marin AS | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

We suggest and investigate a hypothesis of a dominant-mutation mechanism as a possible cause for rib and vertebral deformities found in farmed rainbow trout. We report on an X-ray characterization and a genetic study of a sample of 45 individuals from a rainbow trout broodstock population in the Faroe Islands, which was found to be affected by externally visible rib deformities. 41 fish were from 36 progeny families of 23 sires and 33 dams and 4 fish were of unknown family origin. These fish were from a family-based selection program, year-class 2005, produced from 144 females and 72 males, and the total number of families was 252. In the X-ray characterization both rib deformities and vertebral deformities were found. Only 8 fish were found to be unaffected: 15 fish had both rib and vertebral deformities, 20 fish had only rib deformities and 2 fish had only vertebral deformities. The abnormal ribs were observed as anomalously short and thin bones located inside the abdominal wall. Some had their ends pointing towards the skin, and in the most serious cases, they were perforating the skin. The numbers of rib and vertebral deformities in each individual were assigned rib and vertebral deformity scores. We estimate the proportions in year-class 2005 of deformed fish, of fish with rib deformities and of fish with vertebral deformities, to be 0.82±0.11, 0.78±0.12 and 0.38±0.14, respectively. The 45 individuals were genotyped at nine microsatellite marker loci to investigate potential inbreeding problems. The actual and effective numbers of alleles, na=5.8 and ne=4.2, the heterozygosity, Ho=0.718, and the inbreeding coefficient, Fis=0.034, are similar to the corresponding quantities for Danish strains. The heterozygosity and the inbreeding coefficient indicate a low inbreeding level. A phylogenetic tree and pairwise-relatedness estimates were also constructed from the genotype information and compared with the information from the family-based selection program for rainbow trout. We investigate the dominant-mutation hypothesis and show that genotype counts inferred from the deformity scores are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. From this model, we predict phenotypic segregation ratios of the deformity traits, which are in close agreement with the experimental observations. Finally, we discuss both environmental and genetic causes and conclude in favor of the dominant-mutation mechanism as the most likely cause of the observed deformities. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kolbeinshavn A.G.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Vestergaard P.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Patursson T.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Gislason H.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The observed growth of cod in a farming trial in the Faroe Islands was compared to the predictions of a known cod-growth model for ambient sea temperatures in Norway, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. The growth was also compared to optimal growth rates (denoted as "optimal growth"), as predicted by the model. According to the model, the Faroese temperatures are most favorable for cod growth and closest to the optimal growth. Assuming a starting weight of 30. g on 15 May, the model predicts growth to 4. kg (round weight) in 667, 708, 778 and 896. days for optimal, Faroese, Norwegian and Icelandic temperatures, respectively. The farming trial used semi-intensively produced juvenile cod from broodstock collected on the Faroe Bank. The on-growing was made in three commercial sea cages: Cage 1 with natural light, and Cages 2 and 3 with artificial underwater light to inhibit sexual maturation. At 836. days post hatching, the mean weight of about 30 sampled fish from Cages 1, 2 and 3 was 2.95, 4.06, and 4.16. kg, respectively. By determining the gonad weight of the sampled fish, the artificial light is shown to successfully delay sexual maturation in Cages 2 and 3 until 4. kg body weight. The best economical feed conversion ratio and yield per stocked juvenile - estimated for Cage 3 - were about 1.2 and 4.0, respectively. Total accumulated mortality was about 20%. The realized growth data indicate that cod farming with rapid growth: 4. kg in about 28. months post hatching with controlled sexual maturation is possible in the near-optimal sea temperatures around the Faroe Islands. The stable sea temperature and the relatively low and stable ambient daylight during summer in Árnafjør{eth}ur (62°15'N), Faroe Islands, which is further damped by the sea water above the underwater lights, are suggested to have assisted the control of the sexual maturation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Jensen I.-J.,e Arctic University of Norway | Eysturskard J.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Madetoja M.,Made Consulting | Eilertsen K.-E.,e Arctic University of Norway
Nutrition Research | Year: 2014

Hypertension is an independent yet controllable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Synthetic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors used to treat hypertension are often associated with adverse effects, and the interest in diet-related inhibitors is increasing. We hypothesized that North Atlantic fish hydrolysate might inhibit ACE, thus preventing hypertension. We assessed the ACE inhibitory potential of various North Atlantic fish species and evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of fish hydrolysates on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Fish samples were hydrolyzed using simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and ACE inhibitory activity was evaluated using an ACE inhibitory activity assay. In vivo anti-hypertensive effects were evaluated by administering hydrolysates of wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.), or farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to 10-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats for 4 weeks. The dosing was 200mg/kg body weight for 21days, followed by 500mg/kg body weight for 7days. Water and Captopril (20mg/kg body weight) were administered as the negative and positive controls, respectively. The analyzed fish hydrolysates exhibited a 50 % ACE inhibition coefficient (IC50) of 1 to 2.7μg/mU ACE. Fish hydrolysate supplements did not significantly inhibit the increase in blood pressure during the experimental period. The group receiving cod supplement had a lower (not significant) increase in blood pressure compared to the other groups. Although further studies are necessary to verify the antihypertensive effect of cod, the results obtained in this study indicate the potential that cod hydrolysate may have in inhibiting hypertension. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Rasmussen H.W.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Patursson T.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Simonsen K.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes
Aquacultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements were conducted at a full scale salmon farm outside Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. Measurements were conducted over the duration of two days in an oscillating tidal current. The objective was to visualise the flow field in the wake of the salmon farm and make predictions of the velocity reduction from the farm equipment, i.e. cage nets primarily. Kriging was used to interpolate results from measured velocity to a 3-dimensional (3-D) volume of water, including bathymetry data from the farm site. Results indicate that it is possible to visualise the flow field and make prediction of the velocity reduction. Comparison is made with theoretical velocity reduction and there is good agreement with only a 5% difference in the minimum velocity magnitude. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Klebert P.,Sintef | Patursson O.,Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes | Endresen P.C.,Sintef | Rundtop P.,Sintef | And 2 more authors.
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper presents the full-scale measurements of the deformation and current reduction of a large-scale fish sea cage submitted to high currents. Pressure tags were used to measure the cage deformation and the vertical displacement of the bottom ring, while an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) were used to measure the current reduction. The results show a reduction of 30% of the cage volume for current velocity above 0.6 m/s. The measured current reduction in the cage was 21.5%. A simulation model based on super-elements describing the cage shape was applied, and the results show good agreement with the cage deformations. Also the current flow measurements show the interaction between the sea cage and the bathymetry chart. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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