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Bakke A.M.,Aquaculture Protein Center CoE | Tashjian D.H.,University of California at Davis | Wang C.F.,University of California at Davis | Lee S.H.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2010

l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) is a dominant form of selenium (Se) found in organisms at all levels of aquatic food chains and a key source of Se bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity. In mammals, intestinal absorption of SeMet is at least partly via the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The mechanism of SeMet absorption and competitive effects of other dietary components on SeMet absorption in fish are unknown. Thus the in vitro uptake rates of l-methionine (Met) and the competitive effect of SeMet on Met absorption, an indicator that SeMet uses the same nutrient transporter(s) for absorption, in the various regions of the green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) intestine were investigated using intact tissues (a modified everted sleeve method). Intestinal tissue was incubated in Ringer's solution containing 0-10 mmol L-1 Met or SeMet (n = 5 for each substrate's concentration and intestinal region), respectively, as well as constant tracer levels of isotope-labeled Met. The data indicate that SeMet uptake was mediated by the same transporter(s) as Met and that the absorption kinetics were similar for both substrates. When there were differences in absorption they appeared to be mostly due to higher permeability (passive uptake) of the tissue for Met than for SeMet, particularly in the pyloric caeca (PC) and distal intestine (DI). Maximum rates of absorption, on the other hand, tended to be higher for SeMet than Met in the mid intestine and DI, whereas differences in affinity for the transporters varied between these tissues but were very similar in the PC. These differences may be due to differences in regional intestinal characteristics such as amount of mucus secreted and degree of tissue contraction, and/or substrate differences regarding solubility in and movement through the mucus, influence on tissue contraction, permeability through membranes or between cells, intracellular metabolism, as well as basolateral transport. Interestingly, an increasing proximal-to-distal gradient for rates of methionine and putative SeMet absorption was observed in green sturgeon which differs from the declining gradient usually observed for substrate absorption in other fish species and mammals. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sahlmann C.,University of Bremen | Sahlmann C.,Aquaculture Protein Center CoE | Chan T.-Y.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Chan B.K.K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2011

The setation of the mouthparts, gut contents and video recordings of live individuals of the deep-sea clawed lobsters (Nephropidae) Metanephrops formosanus, M. armatus and the spiny lobster (Palinuridae) Puerulus angulatus from northwest Pacific waters were analysed to get an insight into their feeding modes. A comparison of SEM photos shows a high degree of similarity between the morphology and setation of the mouthparts of M. formosanus and M. armatus, but that of P. angulatus was very different to Metanephrops. Serrate setae are most abundant on the feeding appendages of M. formosanus and M. armatus. The mouthparts of P. angulatus are dominated by simple and cuspidate setae. Gut contents of Metanephrops spp. contained small crustacean parts, fish and bivalves and a considerable amount of sediment (∼60% relative abundance). Guts of Puerulus contained mostly small pieces of fish and crustaceans and only a relatively minor amount of sediment (<10%). Video analysis revealed that the studied Metanephrops species are able to handle soft food items by cutting and abrading movements of the mouthparts. Puerulus would not feed on presented food items under lab conditions. The feeding appendages and their setation are clearly related to the feeding modes of the species studied. Both Metanephrops species have slender appendages with fine and sharp setae, suggesting it is a predator and/or scavenger on small crustaceans and ingest deposits to a limited extent. Puerulus angulatus has thick and shorter appendages with strong simple and cuspidate setae, possibly corresponding to a more predatory lifestyle. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

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