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Östermalm, Sweden

Wikstrom S.A.,University of Cologne | Wikstrom S.A.,AquaBiota Water Research | Wikstrom S.A.,University of Stockholm | Hillebrand H.,University of Cologne | Hillebrand H.,Carl von Ossietzky University
Oecologia | Year: 2012

Increased biological diversity due to invasion by non-indigenous species (NIS) is a global phenomenon with potential effects on trophic interactions and ecosystem processes in the invaded habitat. We assessed the effects of resource availability and invasion of three non-indigenous invertebrate grazers (two crustaceans and a snail) on secondary production, relative dominance of NIS grazers and resource depletion in experimental freshwater mesocosms. The relative dominance of NIS grazers increased with increasing initial resource availability, although the effect was largest for one of the three species. The effect was due to the fact that all the included non-indigenous grazers were able to expand their populations quickly in response to resource addition. For the most dominating species, the increased grazer diversity due to invasion in turn resulted in higher production of grazer biomass and a more efficient depletion of the periphyton resource. The effect was largest at high initial resource availability, where NIS dominance was most pronounced. Our results show that an invasion-induced increase in species diversity can increase resource depletion and consequently production, but that the effect depends on identity of the introduced species. The results also suggest that properties of the recipient system, such as resource availability, can modulate ecosystem effects of NIS by affecting invader success and dominance. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Hansen J.P.,University of Stockholm | Wikstrom S.A.,AquaBiota Water Research | Wikstrom S.A.,University of Stockholm | Axemar H.,University of Stockholm | Kautsky L.,University of Stockholm
Aquatic Ecology | Year: 2011

This study explores: (1) whether the abundance of macroinvertebrates differs between macrophytes differing in both morphological complexity and tolerance to nutrient enrichment; (2) whether the distribution of invertebrates between macrophytes is due to active habitat choice; and (3) whether invertebrates prefer structurally complex to simple macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate abundance was compared between two common soft-bottom plants in the Baltic Sea that are tolerant to eutrophication, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton pectinatus, and one common plant that is sensitive to eutrophication, Chara baltica. Both field sampling and habitat choice experiments were conducted. We recorded higher total macroinvertebrate abundance on the structurally complex M. spicatum than on the more simply structured P. pectinatus and C. baltica, but found no difference in macroinvertebrate abundance between P. pectinatus and C. baltica. In accordance with the field results, our experiment indicated that the crustacean Gammarus oceanicus actively chose M. spicatum over the other macrophytes. Besides, we found that G. oceanicus actively preferred complex to simply structured artificial plants, indicating that the animal distribution was at least partly driven by differences in morphological complexity between plant species. In contrast, the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis did not make an active habitat choice between the plants. Our findings suggest that human-induced changes in vegetation composition can affect the faunal community. Increased abundance of structurally complex macrophytes, for example, M. spicatum, can result in increased abundance of macroinvertebrates, particularly mobile arthropods that may actively choose a more structurally complex macrophyte. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sundblad G.,Uppsala University | Sundblad G.,AquaBiota Water Research | Bergstrom U.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sandstrom A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Eklov P.,Uppsala University
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014

Habitat protection is a strategy often proposed in fisheries management to help maintain viable populations of exploited species. Yet, quantifying the importance of habitat availability for population sizes is difficult, as the precise distribution of essential habitats is poorly known. To quantify the contribution from coastal nursery habitats to exploited fish population sizes, we related adult density to the amount of nursery habitat available for 12 populations of the two dominant predatory fish species in a 40 000-km 2 archipelago area of the Baltic Sea. Habitat distribution was mapped using three conceptually different techniques, Maxent, generalized additive models, and random forest, using spawning and 0-group point samples. Adult densities were estimated from gillnet surveys. Regressions demonstrated no evident effect from fishing, whereas habitat availability had a positive effect, explaining almost half of the variation in population sizes of both species. This result shows that a substantial proportion of the potential production of adult fish can be estimated by mapping essential nursery habitats distribution. Responses were non-linear, indicating that habitat protection has largest effects where there is little available habitat. By demonstrating the importance of habitat limitation of two exploited fish species, we provide quantitative support to the benefits of habitat protection for fisheries. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Karlson A.M.L.,University of Stockholm | Naslund J.,University of Stockholm | Naslund J.,AquaBiota Water Research | Ryden S.B.,University of Stockholm | Elmgren R.,University of Stockholm
Oecologia | Year: 2011

Ecosystem consequences of biodiversity change are often studied from a species loss perspective, while the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functions are rarely quantified. In this experimental study, we used isotope tracers to measure the incorporation and burial of carbon and nitrogen from a simulated spring phytoplankton bloom by communities of one to four species of deposit-feeding macrofauna found in the species-poor Baltic Sea. The recently invading polychaete Marenzelleriaarctia, which has spread throughout the Baltic Sea, grows more rapidly than the native species Monoporeia affinis, Pontoporeia femorata (both amphipods) and Macoma balthica (a bivalve), resulting in higher biomass increase (biomass production) in treatments including the polychaete. Marenzelleria incorporated and buried bloom material at rates similar to the native species. Multi-species treatments generally had higher isotope incorporation, indicative of utilization of bloom material, than expected from monoculture yields of the respective species. The mechanism behind this observed over-yielding was mainly niche complementarity in utilization of the bloom input, and was more evident in communities including the invader. In contrast, multi-species treatments had generally lower biomass increase than expected. This contrasting pattern suggests that there is little overlap in resource use of freshly deposited bloom material between Marenzelleria and the native species but it is likely that interference competition acts to dampen resulting community biomass. In conclusion, an invasive species can enhance incorporation and burial of organic matter from settled phytoplankton blooms, two processes fundamental for marine productivity. © 2011 The Author(s).

Forslund H.,University of Stockholm | Wikstrom S.A.,University of Stockholm | Wikstrom S.A.,AquaBiota Water Research | Pavia H.,Gothenburg University
Oecologia | Year: 2010

Non-indigenous species (NIS) are important components of global change, and in order to manage such species it is important to understand which factors affect their success. Interactions with enemies in the new range have been shown to be important for the outcome of introductions, but thus far most studies on NIS-enemy interactions have considered only specialist herbivores in terrestrial systems. Here we present the results from the first biogeographic study that compares herbivore resistance between populations in the native and new region of a non-indigenous seaweed. We show that low consumption of the non-indigenous seaweed by a generalist herbivore is caused by higher chemical defence levels and herbivore resistance in the new range-and not by the failure of the herbivore to recognise the non-indigenous seaweed as a suitable host. Since most seaweed-herbivore interactions are dominated by generalist herbivores, this pattern could be common in marine communities. Our results also reveal that traits used to predict the invasive potential of species, such as their resistance to enemies, can change during the invasion process, but not always in the way predicted by dominant theories. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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