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Trondheim, Norway

Baranski M.,432 as | Baranski M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Moen T.,432 as | Moen T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2010

Background: Flesh colour and growth related traits in salmonids are both commercially important and of great interest from a physiological and evolutionary perspective. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting flesh colour and growth related traits in an F2 population derived from an isolated, landlocked wild population in Norway (Byglands Bleke) and a commercial production population. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight informative microsatellite loci distributed across all 29 linkage groups in Atlantic salmon were genotyped in individuals from four F2 families that were selected from the ends of the flesh colour distribution. Genotyping of 23 additional loci and two additional families was performed on a number of linkage groups harbouring putative QTL. QTL analysis was performed using a line-cross model assuming fixation of alternate QTL alleles and a half-sib model with no assumptions about the number and frequency of QTL alleles in the founder populations. Results: A moderate to strong phenotypic correlation was found between colour, length and weight traits. In total, 13 genome-wide significant QTL were detected for all traits using the line-cross model, including three genome-wide significant QTL for flesh colour (Chr 6, Chr 26 and Chr 4). In addition, 32 suggestive QTL were detected (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). Using the half-sib model, six genome-wide significant QTL were detected for all traits, including two for flesh colour (Chr 26 and Chr 4) and 41 suggestive QTL were detected (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). Based on the half-sib analysis, these two genome-wide significant QTL for flesh colour explained 24% of the phenotypic variance for this trait. Conclusions: A large number of significant and suggestive QTL for flesh colour and growth traits were found in an F2 population of Atlantic salmon. Chr 26 and Chr 4 presented the strongest evidence for significant QTL affecting flesh colour, while Chr 10, Chr 5, and Chr 4 presented the strongest evidence for significant QTL affecting growth traits (length and weight). These QTL could be strong candidates for use in marker-assisted selection and provide a starting point for further characterisation of the genetic components underlying flesh colour and growth. © 2010 Baranski et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

We have studied stress-induced reversion to virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in persistently infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry. Naïve fry were persistently infected with a virulent strain (T217A221 of major structural virus protein 2, VP2) or a low virulent (T217T221) variant of IPNV. The fry were infected prior to immunocompetence as documented by lack of recombination activating gene-1, T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor mRNA expression at time of challenge. The fish were followed over 6 months and monitored monthly for presence of virus and viral genome mutations. No mutation was identified in the TA or TT group over the 6 months period post infection. Six months post infection TA and TT infected groups were subject to daily stress for 7 days and then sampled weekly for an additional period of 28 days post stress. Stress-responses were documented by down-regulation of mRNA expression of IFN-α1 and concomitant increase of replication levels of T217T221 infected fish at day 1 post stress. By 28 days post stress a T221A reversion was found in 3 of 6 fish in the T217T221 infected group. Sequencing of reverted isolates showed single nucleotide peaks on chromatograms for residue 221 for all three isolates and no mix of TA and TT strains. Replication fitness of reverted (TA) and non-reverted (TT) variants was studied in vitro under an antiviral state induced by recombinant IFN-α1. The T217A221 reverted variant replicated to levels 23-fold higher than the T217T221 strain in IFN-α1 treated cells. Finally, reverted TA strains were virulent when tested in an in vivo trial in susceptible salmon fry. In conclusion, these results indicate that stress plays a key role in viral replication in vivo and can facilitate conditions that will allow reversion from attenuated virus variants of IPNV. © 2013 Gadan et al. Source

Karlsson S.,430 As | Moen T.,Aqua Gen AS | Moen T.,432 as | Hindar K.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2010

Levels of genetic variability at 12 microsatellite loci and 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA were studied in four farm strains and four wild populations of Atlantic salmon. Within populations, the farm strains showed significantly lower allelic richness and expected heterozygosity than wild populations at the 12 microsatellite loci, but a significantly higher genetic variability with respect to observed number of haplotypes and haplotype diversity in mtDNA. Significant differences in allele- and haplotype-frequencies were observed between farm strains and wild populations, as well as between different farm strains and between different wild populations. The large genetic differentiation at mitochondrial DNA between wild populations (FST = 0.24), suggests that the farm strains attained a high mitochondrial genetic variability when created from different wild populations seven generations ago. A large proportion of this variability remains despite an expected lower effective population size for mitochondrial than nuclear DNA. This is best explained by the particular mating schemes in the breeding programmes, with 2-4 females per male. Our observations suggest that for some genetic polymorphisms farm populations might currently hold equal or higher genetic variability than wild populations, but lower overall genetic variability. In the short-term, genetic interactions between escaped farm salmon and wild salmon might increase genetic variability in wild populations, for some, but not most, genetic polymorphisms. In the long term, further losses of genetic variability in farm populations are expected for all genetic polymorphisms, and genetic variability in wild populations will be reduced if escapes of farm salmon continue. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Meuwissen T.H.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Odegard J.,Aqua Gen AS | Andersen-Ranberg I.,NORSVIN | Grindflek E.,NORSVIN
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2014

Background: With the advent of genomic selection, alternative relationship matrices are used in animal breeding, which vary in their coverage of distant relationships due to old common ancestors. Relationships based on pedigree (A) and linkage analysis (GLA) cover only recent relationships because of the limited depth of the known pedigree. Relationships based on identity-by-state (G) include relationships up to the age of the SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) mutations. We hypothesised that the latter relationships were too old, since QTL (quantitative trait locus) mutations for traits under selection were probably more recent than the SNPs on a chip, which are typically selected for high minor allele frequency. In addition, A and GLA relationships are too recent to cover genetic differences accurately. Thus, we devised a relationship matrix that considered intermediate-aged relationships and compared all these relationship matrices for their accuracy of genomic prediction in a pig breeding situation. Methods: Haplotypes were constructed and used to build a haplotype-based relationship matrix (GH), which considers more intermediate-aged relationships, since haplotypes recombine more quickly than SNPs mutate. Dense genotypes (38 453 SNPs) on 3250 elite breeding pigs were combined with phenotypes for growth rate (2668 records), lean meat percentage (2618), weight at three weeks of age (7387) and number of teats (5851) to estimate breeding values for all animals in the pedigree (8187 animals) using the aforementioned relationship matrices. Phenotypes on the youngest 424 to 486 animals were masked and predicted in order to assess the accuracy of the alternative genomic predictions. Results: Correlations between the relationships and regressions of older on younger relationships revealed that the age of the relationships increased in the order A, GLA, GH and G. Use of genomic relationship matrices yielded significantly higher prediction accuracies than A. GH and G, differed not significantly, but were significantly more accurate than GLA. Conclusions: Our hypothesis that intermediate-aged relationships yield more accurate genomic predictions than G was confirmed for two of four traits, but these results were not statistically significant. Use of estimated genotype probabilities for ungenotyped animals proved to be an efficient method to include the phenotypes of ungenotyped animals. © 2014 Meuwissen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Karlsson S.,Nofima Marine | Moen T.,Aqua Gen AS
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2010

Background. An increasing number of aquaculture species are subjected to artificial selection in systematic breeding programs. Rapid improvements of important commercial traits are reported, but little is known about the effects of the strong directional selection applied, on gene level variation. Large numbers of genetic markers are becoming available, making it feasible to detect and estimate these effects. Here a simulation tool was developed in order to explore the power by which single genetic loci subjected to uni-directional selection in parallel breeding populations may be detected. Findings. Two simulation models were pursued: 1) screening for loci displaying higher genetic differentiation than expected (high-FSToutliers), from neutral evolution between a pool of domesticated populations and a pool of wild populations; 2) screening for loci displaying lower genetic differentiation (low-FSToutliers) between domesticated strains than expected from neutral evolution. The premise for both approaches was that the isolated domesticated strains are subjected to the same breeding goals. The power to detect outlier loci was calculated under the following parameter values: number of populations, effective population size per population, number of generations since onset of selection, initial FST, and the selection coefficient acting on the locus. Among the parameters investigated, selection coefficient, the number of generation since onset of selection, and number of populations, had the largest impact on power. The power to detect loci subjected to directional in breeding programmes was high when applying the between farmed and wild population approach, and low for the between farmed populations approach. Conclusions. A simulation tool was developed for estimating the power to detect artificial selection acting directly on single loci. The simulation tool should be applicable to most species subject to domestication, as long as a reasonable high accuracy in input parameters such as effective population size, number of generations since the initiation of selection, and initial differentiation (FST) can be obtained. Identification of genetic loci under artificial selection would be highly valuable, since such loci could be used to monitor maintenance of genetic variation in the breeding populations and monitoring possible genetic changes in wild populations from genetic interaction between escapees and their wild counterpart. © 2010 Karlsson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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