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Munro J.L.,Aqua Bounty Technologies | Munro J.L.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Boon V.A.,World Center for Environmental Disease and Aquatic Research World | Boon V.A.,University of Southampton
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST), also known as growth hormone, is used to enhance production and development of animals within the agriculture and aquaculture industries. Its use is controversial because of its potential effects on human and animal health. To screen for rbST in shrimp feed, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an inhibition step was developed. Sample and rbST antibody (rabbit anti-rbST) were incubated at room temperature for 30 min. Subsequently, this competitive reaction was transferred to a microplate coated with rbST, using goat antirabbit IgG linked with horseradish peroxidise as the secondary antibody. Substrates for peroxidise were added, and the absorbance at 410 nm was determined. The applicability of the method was assessed using rbST extracted from "spiked" shrimp feed samples. The assay was reproducible and linear with Ff values greater than 0.98 over the standard curve range of 20-500 /μg/g. The intra- and interday precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were 3.4 and 5.3%, respectively. The mean recovery from 15 spiked feed samples was 105%. This assay will be a valuable tool for quantitative detection of rbST by both governments and commercial companies and can be modified for other types of feed. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


Fahrenkrug S.C.,University of Minnesota | Fahrenkrug S.C.,Recombinetics, Inc. | Fahrenkrug S.C.,Guangxi University | Carlson D.F.,University of Minnesota | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Indirect modification of animal genomes by interspecific hybridization, cross-breeding, and selection has produced an enormous spectrum of phenotypic diversity over more than 10,000 yr of animal domestication. Using these established technologies, the farming community has successfully increased the yield and efficiency of production in most agricultural species while utilizing land resources that are often unsuitable for other agricultural purposes. Moving forward, animal well-being and agricultural sustainability are moral and economic priorities of consumers and producers alike. Therefore, these considerations will be included in any strategy designed to meet the challenges produced by global climate change and an expanding world population. Improvements in the efficiency and precision of genetic technologies will enable a timely response to meet the multifaceted food requirements of a rapidly increasing world population. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Rodriguez-Brito B.,San Diego State University | Li L.,San Diego State University | Li L.,Blood System Research Institute | Wegley L.,San Diego State University | And 32 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2010

The species composition and metabolic potential of microbial and viral communities are predictable and stable for most ecosystems. This apparent stability contradicts theoretical models as well as the viral-microbial dynamics observed in simple ecosystems, both of which show Kill-the-Winner behavior causing cycling of the dominant taxa. Microbial and viral metagenomes were obtained from four human-controlled aquatic environments at various time points separated by one day to > 1 year. These environments were maintained within narrow geochemical bounds and had characteristic species composition and metabolic potentials at all time points. However, underlying this stability were rapid changes at the fine-grained level of viral genotypes and microbial strains. These results suggest a model wherein functionally redundant microbial and viral taxa are cycling at the level of viral genotypes and virus-sensitive microbial strains. Microbial taxa, viral taxa, and metabolic function persist over time in stable ecosystems and both communities fluctuate in a Kill-the-Winner manner at the level of viral genotypes and microbial strains. © 2010 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.


Locke J.B.,University of California at San Diego | Locke J.B.,Trius Therapeutics | Vicknair M.R.,Kent BioEnergy | Ostland V.E.,Kent BioEnergy | And 3 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2010

Streptococcus iniae poses a serious threat to finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. Stringent regulatory standards limit the use of antibiotics to treat S. iniae infections; improved vaccination strategies are thus of great interest. We investigated the potential for efficient, non-injectable batch vaccination via the use of live attenuated vaccines. Three attenuated S. iniae strains with genetic mutations eliminating the production of virulence factors-capsular polysaccharide (ΔcpsD), M-like protein (ΔsimA), and phosphoglucomutase (ΔpgmA)-were evaluated in parallel with an adjuvanted, formalin-killed, whole-cell S. iniae bacterin. Juvenile hybrid striped bass (HSB; Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) were vaccinated through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or bath immersion and held for 800 degree-days prior to challenge with a lethal dose of the virulent wild-type (WT) S. iniae parent strain. The ΔcpsD, ΔpgmA, and bacterin vaccines provided the highest level of vaccination safety (0% mortality), whereas the ΔsimA mutant, although it caused 12 to 16% vaccinationrelated mortality, was the only vaccine candidate to provide 100% protection in both i.p. and immersion delivery models. Our studies demonstrate the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines for prevention of S. iniae infection, and identify immersion delivery of live vaccines as an attractive option for use in commercial aquaculture settings. © Inter-Research 2010.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 95.24K | Year: 2009

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will focus on oral delivery of an antiviral treatment for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)for use in shrimp aquaculture. This antiviral is based on the concept of RNA inhibition, or RNAi, and is focused on priming the shrimp?s natural antiviral machinery to silence critical genes of the infecting virus, thus preventing spread of viral infection. If successful in proof of concept in Phase I, Phase II research will focus on testing and optimizing oral delivery of RNAi antivirals in response to viral challenges. This research is combines expertise in evaluating therapeutics for shrimp and understanding of RNAi-based approaches for controlling viral infections, with the proprietary technologies for micro-encapsulation to enhance stability and availability of therapeutics. The broader impacts of this research are to address the dire need for antiviral treatments for successful shrimp aquaculture. In particular, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) will be the first target for a commercial product. WSSV is endemic in the majority of shrimp producing countries, and causes losses of over $1.5 billion annually. The virus can potentially destroy the shrimp output of an entire country as it did in Ecuador in the early part of the century. The oral delivery of RNAi therapeutics to shrimp could be adapted to target other economically damaging viruses. Such technologies for oral delivery of RNAi-based antivirals to shrimp could be the first blockbuster therapeutic in aquaculture. There is a desperate industry need, and a significant commercial opportunity, for innovation in addressing shrimp viral infections.

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