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Schulze R.J.,Center for Digestive Diseases | Weller S.G.,Center for Digestive Diseases | Schroeder B.,Center for Digestive Diseases | Krueger E.W.,Center for Digestive Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid storage organelles that in hepatocytes may be catabolized by autophagy for use as an energy source, but the membrane-trafficking machinery regulating such a process is poorly characterized. We hypothesized that the large GTPase Dynamin 2 (Dyn2), well known for its involvement in membrane deformation and cellular protein trafficking, could orchestrate autophagy-mediated LD breakdown. Accordingly, depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of Dyn2 led to a substantial accumulation of LDs in hepatocytes. Strikingly, the targeted disruption of Dyn2 induced a dramatic four- to fivefold increase in the size of autolysosomes. Chronic or acute Dyn2 inhibition combined with nutrient deprivation stimulated the excessive tubulation of these autolysosomal compartments. Importantly, Dyn2 associated with these tubules along their length, and the tubules vesiculated and fragmented in the presence of functional Dyn2. These findings provide new evidence for the participation of the autolysosome in LD metabolism and demonstrate a novel role for dynamin in the function and maturation of an autophagic compartment. © 2013 Schulze et al. Source


Min J.-K.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kim J.-M.,Chungnam National University | Li S.,Chungnam National University | Lee J.W.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), a highly malignant hepatobiliary cancer, has a poor prognosis and is refractory to conventional therapies. The aim of this study is to discover a novel molecular target for the treatment of ICC. Experimental Design: To discover novel cancer-associated membrane antigens expressed in ICC cells, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) by immunizing mice with intact ICC cell lines and screened for those that bind to the plasma membrane of ICC cells but not to normal cells. The mAb A10-A3 was selected and its target antigen was identified as the L1 cell adhesion molecule. Expression of L1 in ICC was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from 42 ICC patients. The functional significance of L1 expression in the tumor progression of ICC was investigated by L1 suppression, L1 overexpression, and antibody treatment. Results: L1 was not expressed in normal hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile duct epithelium but highly expressed in 40.5% of ICC patients, remarkably at the invasive front of the tumors. Suppression of L1 with short hairpin RNA significantly decreased proliferation, migration, and invasion of ICC cells in vitro. Consistently, L1 overexpression in ICC cells enhanced proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis resistance. In addition, L1 short hairpin RNA or anti-L1 mAb significantly reduced the tumor growth in nude mice bearing ICC xenograft. Conclusions: We identified that L1 is expressed in ICC. L1 plays an important role in the tumor progression of ICC by enhancing cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. L1 may represent a novel therapeutic target for ICC. ©2010 AACR. Source


Kang S.,Dongguk University | Kang S.,Aprogen Inc. | Kim B.,Dongguk University | Kang H.-S.,Research Institute and Hospital | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2015

Secretin receptor (SCTR), the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for secretin, has been observed to be upregulated in a few tumor types while downregulated in others, promoting or suppressing the proliferation of tumor cells, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanism of dysregulation in cancer. In the present study, an analysis of the biological pathways affected by methylation in breast cancer using the methylome databases revealed that GPCRs played a major part in the affected pathway. SCTR, one of the dysregulated GPCRs, showed hypermethylation (p<0.01) and downregulation (p<0.05) in breast cancer tissues. Pathway analysis after the downregulation of SCTR by siRNA in MCF-10A cells identified the G2/M stage checkpoint as the top-scored pathway. Cell cycle-related genes were all upregulated or downregulated suppressing cell proliferation. However, the overexpression of SCTR in MCF-7 cells led to a 35% increase of the cell proliferation index and 2.1-fold increase of cellular migration. Our findings indicate that SCTR suppresses the proliferation of normal breast cells, while the gene stimulates the proliferation and migration of cancer cells being downregulated by promoter methylation. Source


Kang J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim J.,Aprogen Inc. | Choi K.-W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Perception of temperature is an important brain function for organisms to survive. Evidence suggests that temperature preference behavior (TPB) in Drosophila melanogaster, one of poikilothermal animals, is regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling in mushroom bodies of the brain. However, downstream targets for the PKA signaling in this behavior have not been identified. From a genome-wide search for the genes regulated by PKA activity in the mushroom bodies, we identified the cyp6a17 Cytochrome P450 gene as a new target for PKA. Our detailed analysis of mutants by genetic, molecular and behavioral assays shows that cyp6a17 is essential for temperature preference behavior. cyp6a17 expression is enriched in the mushroom bodies of the adult brain. Tissue-specific knockdown and rescue experiments demonstrate that cyp6a17 is required in the mushroom bodies for normal temperature preference behavior. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show PKA-dependent expression of a cytochrome P450 gene in the mushroom bodies and its role as a key factor for temperature preference behavior. Taken together, this study reveals a new PKA-Cytochrome P450 pathway that regulates the temperature preference behavior. © 2011 Kang et al. Source


Patent
Aprogen Inc. | Date: 2012-11-15

A humanized antibody is produced by process comprising the steps of: (a) selecting a specificity determining residue (SDR) of the complementarity determining region (CDR) of murine monoclonal antibody heavy chain and light chain variable regions; and (b) grafting said SDR to at least one of the corresponding amino acid sequences in human antibody variable regions.

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