Barnat S.,Aprifel |
Boisset M.,University Paris Diderot |
Casse F.,Aprifel |
Catteau M.,Aprifel |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2010
The increase of fresh vegetable and fruit (FVF) intake could contribute to the prevention of obesity and several major pathologies and thus represents a major public health goal in industrial countries. Nutritional recommendations for increased consumption of FVF could lead to ingestion of unwanted amounts of pesticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate theoretical exposure of French adults to pesticide residues under increasing amounts of FVF intake. Balanced menus with 200 - 400 - 600 - 800 and 1200 g FVF/day were established. Amounts of active substances brought by every FVF vector, at the maximum residue level (MRL) were summed up to determine the intake for each active substance. Values were compared to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) to point out any potential over exposure. A maximalistic approach was adopted and no reducing factor due to processing was taken into account. It was found that under minimal recommended consumption of fruit and vegetables (400 g/d), no active substance reached the ADI, but 18 vs 144 were over 10% of the ADI. Raising FVF to 600 g/d increased the number of active substances over 10% of the ADI to 24, but again in no case was the ADI exceeded. Doubling the intake to 800 g/d gives values over the ADI for 2 active substances only (cyhexatin and thirame). It was concluded that the increase in fruit and vegetables up to 800 g per day should not expose adults over the ADIs for a majority of authorized pesticides. In this regard, residues levels of ten active substances in fruit and vegetables should deserve particular attention. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes | Year: 2011
The increase of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake contributes to the prevention of chronic diseases, but could also significantly increase pesticide exposure and may thus be of health concern. Following a previous pesticide exposure assessment study, the present study was carried out to determine actual levels of pesticides within 400 g of F&V intake and to evaluate consumer risk. Forty-three Active Substances (AS) exceeding 10 % of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in balanced menus established for our previous theoretical study were considered. Fifty-six pooled food samples were analyzed: 28 fruit samples and 28 vegetable samples. Pesticide values were compared to Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) and to the "toxicological credit" derived from ADI. It was observed that 23 out of the 43 retained AS were never detected, 5 were detected both in F&V samples, 12 only in fruits and 3 only in vegetables. The most frequently detected AS were carbendazim, iprodione and dithiocarbamates. When detected, AS were more frequently found in fruit samples (74 %) than in vegetable samples (26 %). A maximum of 3 AS were detected at once in a given sample. Overall, we observed 8 and 14 overruns of the MRL in 1204 measures in pooled vegetable and fruit samples, respectively (0.7 % and 1.2 % of cases, respectively). Chronic exposure for adults was the highest for dithiocarbamates but did not exceed 23.7 % of the ADI in F&V. It was concluded that raising both F&V consumption up to 400 g/day (~5 F&V/day) according to recommendations of the national health and nutrition plan, does not induce pesticide overexposure and should not represent a risk for the consumer.