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Tarragona, Spain

Chimeno R.,Applus IDIADA
SAE Technical Papers

The e-born3 is an innovative urban electric vehicle which can be easily transformed from a van to a passenger vehicle. The e-born3 was created from scratch as an electric vehicle, which permits greater versatility in component packaging and volume usage. The innovative character of the e-born3 is developed along three lines: passive safety performance, vehicle energy efficiency and the ergonomic considerations linked to the interior layout. The elimination of conventional combustion engine powertrain elements together with the use of wheel-embedded electric motors leads to certain freedom when packaging and designing the Body in white and vehicle interior. This freedom enables improvement of the passive safety performance by permitting innovative concepts, such as an innovative layout of the driver and passengers or a short vehicle frontend that minimises pedestrian injuries. The different combination of types of closures achieves a versatile range of utilisation, from taxi to load carrier and family usage. The second goal of the e-born3 was optimal energy management. The placement of the electric motor on the wheels permits a very clean external body design, which leads to important advantages regarding vehicle aerodynamics. The e-born3 exterior body design includes a clean smooth under body, together with closed front-end grilles and an upper-bonnet optimized by means of CFD simulation, which means minimal Cd in its class. The third main innovation is the vehicle concept itself and the versatility of usage. The e-born 3 can be easily transformed from a passenger vehicle to a van by converting the four rear seats into a flat floor. Furthermore, the e-born 3 includes innovative concepts, such as, front and rear independent HVAC systems, two separate loading spaces in the taxi configuration, etc. To sum up, the e-born3 is an optimal solution for the urban mobility of persons and goods, regarding safety, vehicle efficiency and usage versatility. Copyright © 2012 SAE International. Source

Satue R.,Applus IDIADA
SAE Technical Papers

When approaching new mobility solutions such as car-sharing, it soon becomes apparent that it may be necessary to develop specific vehicles for this application. In this paper, Applus IDIADA explains its experience in the development of the iShare, an electric vehicle conceived as a demonstrator of our complete vehicle development capabilities following the principle of development led by functionalities, with the consideration that it would be used in open car-sharing fleets running according to the MIT's (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) mobility-on-demand concept. This paper explains the process followed in order to reach the definition of the different parts, systems and components that are the result of the consideration of the Technical Functionalities, such as Active Safely, Passive Safely, Driveability, NVH, Fleet Management, Maintenance and Comfort, that in their turn result from the basic vehicle specifications defined from the analysis of the key functionalities of this vehicle that are suitability for the car-sharing business model and the mobility requirements of the potential customers. In particular, the paper includes details about the vehicle layout analysis and why a 4-wheel and 2-parallel seats configuration was chosen instead of 2- o 3-wheel or 2-tandem seats configuration, the powertrain, steering, suspension, braking, Passive Safety and energy efficiency concepts explored, the process allowing a customer to book and have access to a given vehicle without a physical key and finally the systems to allow the car-sharing operator to keep the cars in good conditions by replacing interior and exterior trims easily and inexpensively and recycling the materials to make new trims out of it. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE. Source

The eNOTIFY project defined an algorithm which allows the vehicle to recognize when an accident has occurred and what kind of accident has taken place (frontal, side, roll-over or rear-end collision). The innovative aspects of this methodology are basically that, for each type of accident and for each class of vehicle, a maximum and minimum level of vehicle accelerations (linear or angular) are defined for the severe accident, slight accident and no accident scenarios. A direct application of this algorithm could be to include it in an on-board unit on vehicles, and use it in emergency call applications. eCall devices have been developed to automatically notify emergency services in the event of an accident, in which a fast and efficient rescue operation can significantly increase the chances of survival of the severely injured. In order to reduce response time and improve the efficiency of the medical and technical services, fast and accurate accident identification is required. This on-board algorithm makes it possible to identify the type and severity of the accident allowing emergency services to respond accordingly; and as such could contribute to saving lives. Copyright © 2014 SAE International and Copyright © 2014 TSAE. Source

Paz-Estivill S.,Applus IDIADA | Delgado-Ortiz R.,Applus IDIADA | Cirera-Domenech E.,Ramon Llull University | Broto-Puig F.,Ramon Llull University
SAE Technical Papers

Current regulations on exhaust automotive emissions focus on certain pollutants to control vehicle emissions. Hydrocarbons, the main components of gasoline, are one of these regulated compounds; however, the regulation only refers to the sum of total hydrocarbons (THC) without taking into account the individual components. Vehicles also emit a large variety of chemicals besides hydrocarbons that can become much more harmful, depending on their environmental toxicity and the amounts that are emitted to the atmosphere. In recent years, due to the emergence of alternative fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel, the interest in these not so well characterized compounds has grown. For example, when ethanol is used in gasoline blends as a fuel for internal-combustion engine vehicles, the study of other compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, in addition to hydrocarbons, acquires more importance. Based on SOP 101, 102-103 and 104 by California Air Resources Board (CARB), three chromatographic methods for the analysis of methanol and ethanol (HRGC-FID), aldehydes and ketones (HPLC-UV), and individual hydrocarbons (C2-C12) (thermal adsorption/desorption system-HRGC/FID-FID) have been developed. All three methods have been optimized, validated and implemented in automotive exhaust samples analysis. This has allowed us to determine regulated as well as non-regulated compounds from emissions among different ethanol-gasoline fuels (E0, E5-S, E10 and E85), applied to Euro 4 and Flexifuel vehicles. Copyright © 2013 SAE International. Source

Delgado R.,Applus IDIADA | Paz S.,Applus IDIADA
SAE Technical Papers

Ethanol fuel is a sustainable energy resource that is intended to provide a more environmentally and economically friendly alternative to petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline. Recent interest in ethanol has increased due to the fact that it can be combined with gasoline at different percentages: from low percentages with not specially modified gasoline vehicles up to 85% of ethanol, and even up to 100%, in flexible-fuel vehicles. There is much debate and a considerable amount of concern among automakers and consumers regarding the environmental friendliness of ethanol, mainly due to the lack of complete knowledge about the effects of its use on direct pollutants from exhaust vehicle emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, HCs and particulates and on the fuel consumption of the vehicle. Furthermore, there is concern regarding the impact that ethanol could have on the different VOC's, principally because they are ozone precursors due to their reaction in the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of sunlight, which contributes to ground-level ozone formation. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of adding ethanol to gasoline on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, measuring regulated and non-regulated pollutants. To achieve this objective, exhaust emissions tests adapted to the use of ethanol blends were performed using a Euro 4 vehicle running with E0, E5 splash and E10 and a flexible-fuel vehicle running with E0 and E85. An analysis of the automotive engine exhaust for standard pollutants (CO, CO2 HC, NOx, particulates) was performed. Then these regulated measurements were completed with the speciation of the exhaust emissions determining the different contributions of some aldehydes, ketones, ethanol and different individual hydrocarbons, determined by HRGC-FID and HPLC-UV. This long list of pollutants and their particular ozone-forming potential were used to estimate ground-level ozone formation and the effect of different ethanol-gasoline blends on it. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the results obtained in order to determine the effects of adding different percentages of ethanol to gasoline on exhaust emissions (regulated and non-regulated) and fuel consumption as well as to determine the impact on ground-level ozone formation. Copyright © 2012 SAE International. Source

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