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Riva G.,Applied Technology for Neuro Psychology Laboratory ATN P Laboratory
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2012

Evidence from psychology and neuroscience indicates that our spatial experience, including the bodily one, involves the integration of different sensory inputs within two different reference frames egocentric (body as reference of first-person experience) and allocentric (body as object in the physical world). Even if functional relations between these two frames are usually limited, they influence each other during the interaction between long- and short-term memory processes in spatial cognition. If, for some reasons, this process is impaired, the egocentric sensory inputs are no more able to update the contents of the allocentric representation of the body: the subject is locked to it. In the presented perspective, subjects with eating disorders are locked to an allocentric representation of their body, stored in long-term memory (allocentric lock). A significant role in the locking may be played by the medial temporal lobe, and in particular by the connection between the hippocampal complex and amygdala. The differences between exogenous and endogenous causes of the lock may also explain the difference between bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Riva G.,Applied Technology for Neuro Psychology Laboratory ATN P Laboratory | Riva G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Mantovani F.,University of Milan Bicocca
Interacting with Computers | Year: 2012

Different neuropsychological studies clearly show that the perception of our body and its surrounding space is not a given fact but it is influenced by the outcome of our actions (both direct and mediated by the use of tools). In this view, a possible starting point for a better understanding of Presence in computer-mediated interactions is the study of mediated action and its effects on our spatial experience. Following a cognitive perspective, the presented framework describes Presence as an intuitive feeling which is the outcome of an experience-based metacognitive judgment that controls our action. This process monitors pre-reflexively our activity by using an embodied intuitive simulation of the intended action developed through practice (implicit learning). When actions are implemented using one or more tools, it is possible to distinguish between two different types of mediated action: first-order (I use the body to control a proximal artifact, e.g. a tennis player striking the ball with the racquet) or second-order (I use the body to control a proximal artifact that controls a different distal one, e.g. a cranemen using a lever to move a mechanical boom to lift materials). These two mediated actions, when produced intuitively, have different effects on our experience of body and space: a successfully learned first-order mediated action produces incorporation - the proximal tool extends the peripersonal space of the subject - while a successfully learned second-order mediated action produces also incarnation - a second peripersonal space centered on the distal tool. © 2012 British Informatics Society Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Riva G.,Applied Technology for Neuro Psychology Laboratory ATN P Laboratory | Riva G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Banos R.M.,University of Valencia | Banos R.M.,CIBER ISCIII | And 6 more authors.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2012

It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach-the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement-as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience-affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness-that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source


Botella C.,Jaume I University | Botella C.,University of Valencia | Botella C.,CIBER ISCIII | Riva G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 13 more authors.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2012

The goal of this work is to delimit the field of Positive Technology-the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience. This new field combines the objectives of Positive Psychology with enhancements of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by focusing on three key variables-emotional quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness-that are able to transform our personal experience in a tool for building new and enduring personal resources. In fact, Positive Technologies include those designed to manipulate the quality of experience through its structuring, augmentation and/or replacement, with the goal of increasing wellness, and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. This work describes existing Positive Technologies, classified according to their objectives: hedonic (mood-altering devices, which use ICTs to induce positive and pleasant experiences); eudaimonic (systems designed to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences); and social/interpersonal (technologies that seek to improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations). Finally, possible directions of future developments are suggested. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

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