Fairborn, OH, United States
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Multari R.A.,Applied Research Asociates Incorporated | Cremers D.A.,Applied Research Asociates Incorporated | Dupre J.A.M.,New Mexico State University | Gustafson J.E.,Oklahoma State University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The rapid detection of biological contaminants, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, on foods and food-processing surfaces is important to ensure food safety and streamline the food-monitoring process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate technology for this application because sample preparation is minimal and results are available rapidly (seconds to minutes). Here, multivariate regression analysis of LIBS data is used to differentiate the live bacterial pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on various foods (eggshell, milk, bologna, ground beef, chicken, and lettuce) and surfaces (metal drain strainer and cutting board). The type (E. coli or S. enterica) of bacteria could be differentiated in all cases studied along with the metabolic state (viable or heat killed). This study provides data showing the potential of LIBS for the rapid identification of biological contaminants using spectra collected directly from foods and surfaces. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Bergman M.S.,Technology Research Branch | He X.,Technology Research Branch | He X.,West Virginia University | Joseph M.E.,Technology Research Branch | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2015

This study assessed the correlation of N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit between a Static Advanced Headform (StAH) and 10 human test subjects. Quantitative fit evaluations were performed on test subjects who made three visits to the laboratory. On each visit, one fit evaluation was performed on eight different FFRs of various model/size variations. Additionally, subject breathing patterns were recorded. Each fit evaluation comprised three two-minute exercises:Normal Breathing,"Deep Breathing," and againNormal Breathing." The overall test fit factors (FF) for human tests were recorded the same respirator samples were later mounted on the StAH and the overall test manikin fit factors (MFF) were assessed utilizing the recorded human breathing patterns. Linear regression was performed on the mean log10-transformed FF and MFF values to assess the relationship between the values obtained from humans and the StAH.This is the first study to report a positive correlation of respirator fit between a headform and test subjects the linear regression by respirator resulted in R2 = 0.95, indicating a strong linear correlation between FF and MFF. For all respirators the geometric mean (GM) FF values were consistently higher than those of the GM MFF. For 50% of respirators, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different between humans and the StAH. For data grouped by subject/respirator combinations, the linear regression resulted in R2 = 0.49. A weaker correlation (R2 = 0.11) was found using only data paired by subject/respirator combination where both the test subject and StAH had passed a real-time leak check before performing the fit evaluation. For six respirators, the difference in passing rates between the StAH and humans was < 20%, while two respirators showed a difference of 29% and 43%. For data by test subject, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different for 40% of the subjects. Overall, the advanced headform system has potential for assessing fit for some N95 FFR model/sizes. © 2015 Copyright © 2015 JOEH, LLC.


Panetta P.D.,Applied Research Asociates Inc. | Bland L.G.,University of Virginia | Hassan W.,Rolls-Royce
TMS Annual Meeting | Year: 2014

Grain size is a key property that is carefully controlled during processing to create specific mechanical properties and reliability in final components. Achieving specific grain sizes is especially important in aircraft engines where temperatures can range from 260°C at the bore to 704°C at the rim, creating fatigue cracking in the bore and creep damage in the rim region. These competing failure mechanisms led to nickel alloy disks possessing fine-grains, ∼5 microns in the bore and coarse-grains, ∼80 micron in the rim. We created an automated ultrasonic measurement tool which calculates grain size from ultrasonic backscattering measurement. The tool unifies the entire process including controlling the ultrasonic scanner, data acquisition, experimental and theoretical backscattering calculations, numerical optimization to obtain grain size, and visualization. We tested our tool on IN718, Waspaloy, Rene 88 and Alloy 10. Our automated "Ultrasonic Metallography Tool" produced a map of the grain size where the color scale is the grain size. The authors believe this is the first time such a map has been generated automatically from ultrasonic backscattering measurements. Our results compare favorably with traditional metallography agreeing to within 2 microns for some alloys.


Nemeth C.,Applied Research Asociates Inc | Blomberg J.,Applied Research Asociates Inc | Argenta C.,Applied Research Asociates Inc | Pamplin J.C.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings - 2015 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2015 | Year: 2015

Clinicians need to find and use the most important, or salient, information to make optimal patient care decisions. The fragile health of patients who are admitted to a Burn Intensive Care Unit (BICU) requires clinicians and clinical teams to make time-pressured diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on complex sets of information. Barriers to these decisions, and related behaviors, which we term "cognitive work," delay patient care and increase care cost, length of stay, and the potential for misadventures. We report on the progress of a project to develop a real time IT system to support BICU individual and team cognitive work and communication. Our approach enables clinicians to obtain salient information through three means: role-based data views, ability to personally configure displays, and data mining to reveal trends and patterns. User interface and data mining functions and are now being programmed to develop increasingly refined prototypes that we evaluate with BICU clinicians at each stage through agile software development. Evaluation will verify improvements to decision making that result from clinician use of the CCS. More efficient, reliable collaboration among members of the ICU staff who use this Cooperative Communication System (CCS) will improve patient safety and optimize patient outcomes. © 2015 IEEE.

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