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Kim M.,Applied Radiological Science Research Institute | Moon C.,Chonnam National University | Kim H.,Applied Radiological Science Research Institute | Shin M.K.,Pusan National University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2010

The developmental levels of phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes was examined in the cerebrum and hindbrain of the developing rat to better understand the involvement of PLD in brain development. Western blot analysis of PLD in the cerebrum showed that PLD1, a major PLD isoform in the brain, was detected weakly in the cerebrum at day 17 embryonic stage and its levels gradually increased until postnatal day 35 and remained unaltered thereafter. In the hindbrain, comprising the cerebellum and pons, the peak level of PLD1 was detected at 21 days postnatally and declined progressively thereafter. The level of PLD2 in both the cerebrum and hindbrain was minimal compared to that of PLD1. Based on immunohistochemistry, PLD was detected in some neurons and glial cells in the cerebrum. In the hindbrain, PLD was found in some Purkinje cells and some cells of the molecular layer, as well as glial cells, consistent with the results obtained from Western blot analysis. These findings suggest that PLD may differentially play a role in the course of early development of the brain, with special reference to the cerebrum and hindbrain, in rats. © 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Seo H.-S.,Animal Medical Institute | Yang M.,Animal Medical Institute | Song M.-S.,Animal Medical Institute | Kim J.-S.,Animal Medical Institute | And 6 more authors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2010

Toluene, a representative industrial solvent and abused inhalant, decreases neuronal activity in vitro and causes mental depression and cognitive impairment in humans. However, the effects of toluene on brain function and the sites of its action are poorly understood. This study investigated the temporal changes of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult C57BL/6 mice after acute administration of toluene using two immunohistochemical markers for neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, after toluene treatment, depression-like behaviors and learning and memory tasks were examined to assess hippocampal neurogenesis-related behavioral dysfunction. The number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of adult hippocampi declined acutely between 0 h and 24 h after toluene treatment (500 mg/kg, i.p.) and increased gradually from 2 to 8 days post-administration. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of toluene administered (0-1000 mg/kg). In tail suspension and forced-swim tests performed at 1 and 4 days after toluene treatment (500 mg/kg), mice showed significant depression-like behaviors compared to the vehicle-treated controls. In the contextual fear conditioning and object recognition memory test, the mice trained at 1 and 4 days after toluene treatment showed significant memory defects compared to the vehicle-treated controls. This study suggests that acute exposure to toluene reduces the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and can cause hippocampal dysfunction such as depression and cognitive impairment. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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