Applied Health Research Center

Toronto, Canada

Applied Health Research Center

Toronto, Canada

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Yong J.H.E.,Center for Excellence in Economic Analysis Research | Thavorn K.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Hoch J.S.,Center for Excellence in Economic Analysis Research | Hoch J.S.,University of Toronto | And 15 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2016

Background and Purpose - Prolonged ambulatory ECG monitoring after cryptogenic stroke improves detection of covert atrial fibrillation, but its long-term cost-effectiveness is uncertain. Methods - We estimated the cost-effectiveness of noninvasive ECG monitoring in patients aged ≥55 years after a recent cryptogenic stroke and negative 24-hour ECG. A Markov model used observed rates of atrial fibrillation detection and anticoagulation from a randomized controlled trial (EMBRACE) and the published literature to predict lifetime costs and effectiveness (ischemic strokes, hemorrhages, life-years, and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) for 30-day ECG (primary analysis) and 7-day or 14-day ECG (secondary analysis), when compared with a repeat 24-hour ECG. Results - Prolonged ECG monitoring (7, 14, or 30 days) was predicted to prevent more ischemic strokes, decrease mortality, and improve QALYs. If anticoagulation reduced stroke risk by 50%, 30-day ECG (at a cost of USD $447) would be highly cost-effective ($2000 per QALY gained) for patients with a 4.5% annual ischemic stroke recurrence risk. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to stroke recurrence risk and anticoagulant effectiveness, which remain uncertain, especially at higher costs of monitoring. Shorter duration (7 or 14 days) monitoring was cost saving and more effective than an additional 24-hour ECG; its cost-effectiveness was less sensitive to changes in ischemic stroke risk and treatment effect. Conclusions - After a cryptogenic stroke, 30-day ECG monitoring is likely cost-effective for preventing recurrent strokes; 14-day monitoring is an attractive value alternative, especially for lower risk patients. These results strengthen emerging recommendations for prolonged ECG monitoring in secondary stroke prevention. Cost-effectiveness in practice will depend on careful patient selection. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.


Carlisle C.E.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | Carlisle C.E.,University of Toronto | Mamdani M.,Applied Health Research Center | Mamdani M.,University of Toronto | And 7 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: Timely aftercare can be viewed as a patient safety imperative. In the context of decreasing inpatient length of stay (LOS) and known child psychiatry human resource challenges, we investigated time to aftercare for adolescents following psychiatric hospitalization. Method: We conducted a population-based cohort study of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years with psychiatric discharge between April 1, 2002, and March 1, 2004, in Ontario, using encrypted identifiers across health administrative databases to determine time to first psychiatric aftercare with a primary care physician (PCP) or a psychiatrist within 395 days of discharge. Results: Among the 7111 adolescents discharged in the study period, 24% had aftercare with a PCP or a psychiatrist within 7 days and 49% within 30 days. High socioeconomic status (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.43, P < 0.001) and psychotic disorders (AHR 1.24; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.36, P < 0.001) were associated with greater likelihood of aftercare. Youth in the northern part of the province (AHR 0.48; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.71, P < 0.001), rural areas (AHR 0.82; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89, P < 0.001), and with selfharm or suicide attempts (AHR 0.58; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.64, P < 0.001) and substance use disorders (AHR 0.50; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.56, P < 0.001) were less likely to receive aftercare. Conclusions: Hospitalization is our most intensive, intrusive, and expensive psychiatric treatment setting, yet in our cohort of formerly hospitalized adolescents fewer than 50% received psychiatry-related aftercare in the month postdischarge. Innovations are necessary to address geographic inequities and improve timely access to mental health aftercare for all youth.


Nessim S.J.,Jewish General Hospital | Nessim S.J.,McGill University | Nisenbaum R.,Applied Health Research Center | Nisenbaum R.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute
Peritoneal Dialysis International | Year: 2012

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p < 0.001). Among patients with repeat CNS peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS. peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. © 2012 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

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