Huntsville, AL, United States
Huntsville, AL, United States

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Opioids are very effective analgesics, but they are also highly addictive. Methadone is used to treat opioid dependence (OD), acting as a selective agonist at the μ-opioid receptor encoded by the gene OPRM1. Determining the optimal methadone maintenance dose is time consuming; currently, no biomarkers are available to guide treatment. In methadone-treated OD subjects drawn from a case and control sample, we conducted a genome-wide association study of usual daily methadone dose. In African-American (AA) OD subjects (n=383), we identified a genome-wide significant association between therapeutic methadone dose (mean=68.0 mg, s.d.=30.1 mg) and rs73568641 (P=2.8 × 10-8), the nearest gene (306 kilobases) being OPRM1. Each minor (C) allele corresponded to an additional ~20 mg day-1 of oral methadone, an effect specific to AAs. In European-Americans (EAs) (n=1027), no genome-wide significant associations with methadone dose (mean=77.8 mg, s.d.=33.9 mg) were observed. In an independent set of opioid-naive AA children being treated for surgical pain, rs73568641-C was associated with a higher required dose of morphine (n=241, P=3.9 × 10-2). Similarly, independent genomic loci previously shown to associate with higher opioid analgesic dose were associated with higher methadone dose in the OD sample (AA and EA: n=1410, genetic score P=1.3 × 10-3). The present results in AAs indicate that genetic variants influencing opioid sensitivity across different clinical settings could contribute to precision pharmacotherapy for pain and addiction.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.257. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.


Zarrei M.,Applied Genomics | MacDonald J.R.,Applied Genomics | Merico D.,Applied Genomics | Scherer S.W.,Applied Genomics | Scherer S.W.,University of Toronto
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2015

A major contribution to the genome variability among individuals comes from deletions and duplications-collectively termed copy number variations (CNVs)-which alter the diploid status of DNA. These alterations may have no phenotypic effect, account for adaptive traits or can underlie disease. We have compiled published high-quality data on healthy individuals of various ethnicities to construct an updated CNV map of the human genome. Depending on the level of stringency of the map, we estimated that 4.8-9.5% of the genome contributes to CNV and found approximately 100 genes that can be completely deleted without producing apparent phenotypic consequences. This map will aid the interpretation of new CNV findings for both clinical and research applications. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


The identification of rare inherited and de novo copy number variations (CNVs) in human subjects has proven a productive approach to highlight risk genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A variety of microarrays are available to detect CNVs, including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays. Here, we examine a cohort of 696 unrelated ASD cases using a high-resolution one-million feature CGH microarray, the majority of which were previously genotyped with SNP arrays. Our objective was to discover new CNVs in ASD cases that were not detected by SNP microarray analysis and to delineate novel ASD risk loci via combined analysis of CGH and SNP array data sets on the ASD cohort and CGH data on an additional 1000 control samples. Of the 615 ASD cases analyzed on both SNP and CGH arrays, we found that 13,572 of 21,346 (64%) of the CNVs were exclusively detected by the CGH array. Several of the CGH-specific CNVs are rare in population frequency and impact previously reported ASD genes (e.g., NRXN1, GRM8, DPYD), as well as novel ASD candidate genes (e.g., CIB2, DAPP1, SAE1), and all were inherited except for a de novo CNV in the GPHN gene. A functional enrichment test of gene-sets in ASD cases over controls revealed nucleotide metabolism as a potential novel pathway involved in ASD, which includes several candidate genes for follow-up (e.g., DPYD, UPB1, UPP1, TYMP). Finally, this extensively phenotyped and genotyped ASD clinical cohort serves as an invaluable resource for the next step of genome sequencing for complete genetic variation detection.


Diskin S.J.,Applied Genomics
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014

TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human malignancies; however, de novo somatic mutations in childhood embryonal cancers such as neuroblastoma are rare. We report on the analysis of three independent case-control cohorts comprising 10290 individuals and demonstrate that rs78378222 and rs35850753, rare germline variants in linkage disequilibrium that map to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TP53 and 5' UTR of the Δ133 isoform of TP53, respectively, are robustly associated with neuroblastoma (rs35850753: odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0 to 3.6, P combined = 3.43×10(-12); rs78378222: OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.9, P combined = 2.03×10(-11)). All statistical tests were two-sided. These findings add neuroblastoma to the complex repertoire of human cancers influenced by the rs78378222 hypomorphic allele, which impairs proper termination and polyadenylation of TP53 transcripts. Future studies using whole-genome sequencing data are likely to reveal additional rare variants with large effect sizes contributing to neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.


Wong J.T.-F.,Applied Genomics
Frontiers in Bioscience - Landmark | Year: 2014

This study tracks the rise, evolution and postevolution of the genetic information system through emergence of life. The major stages traversed include prebiotic synthesis, functional RNA selection by metabolite, RNA World, peptidated RNA world, co-evolution of genetic code and amino acid biosynthesis, last universal common ancestor, Darwinian evolution and synthetic life.


A composition and method for generating reagents and the composition of these reagents for the stabilization and preservation of viability of cancer tissue which has been surgically excised and the suspension and/or termination of apoptosis (cell death) by significant modulation of cell metabolism by low molar concentrations of synergistic chemistries and hormonal growth enhancers while maintaining normal gene expression patterns of the surgically excised tissue.


A composition and method for generating reagents and the composition of these reagents for the stabilization and preservation of viability of cancer tissue which has been surgically excised and the suspension and/or termination of apoptosis (cell death) by significant modulation of cell metabolism by low molar concentrations of synergistic chemistries and hormonal growth enhancers while maintaining normal gene expression patterns of the surgically excised tissue.


Patent
Applied Genomics | Date: 2014-01-08

The present invention relates to the regulation of the natural defense system of plants through the introduction of foreign/native genes into plant cells, preferably into their genomes. More specifically, the methods relate to increasing citrus plant disease resistance by over-expressing genes involved in the innate plant defense system.


Methods and reagents for classifying tumors and for identifying new tumor classes and subclasses. Methods for correlating tumor class or subclass with therapeutic regimen or outcome, for identifying appropriate (new or known) therapies for particular classes or subclasses, and for predicting outcomes based on class or subclass. New therapeutic agents and methods for the treatment of cancer.


A composition and method for generating reagents and the composition of these reagents for the stabilization and preservation of viability of cancer tissue which has been surgically excised and the suspension and/or termination of apoptosis (cell death) by significant modulation of cell metabolism by low molar concentrations of synergistic chemistries and hormonal growth enhancers while maintaining normal gene expression patterns of the surgically excised tissue.

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