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Toronto, Canada

Jones K.,Spinal Injuries Unit | Simpson G.K.,Applied Brain Research | Briggs L.,Griffith University | Dorsett P.,Griffith University
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to investigate the role of spirituality in facilitating adjustment and resilience after spinal cord injury (SCI) for the individual with SCI and their family members. Method - data sources: Peer reviewed journals were identified using PsychInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Sociological Abstracts search engines. Study selection: After duplicates were removed, 434 abstracts were screened applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction: The selected 28 studies were reviewed in detail and grouped according to methodological approach. Results: Of the 28 studies relating to spirituality and related meaning-making constructs, 26 addressed the adjustment of the individual with SCI alone. Only two included family members as participants. Quantitative studies demonstrated that spirituality was positively associated with life satisfaction, quality of life, mental health and resilience. The utilisation of meaning-making and hope as coping strategies in the process of adjustment were highlighted within the qualitative studies. Clinical implications included recommendations that spirituality and meaning-making be incorporated in assessment and interventions during rehabilitation. The use of narratives and peer support was also suggested. Conclusions: Spirituality is an important factor in adjustment after SCI. Further research into the relationship between spirituality, family adjustment and resilience is needed.Implications for RehabilitationHigher levels of spirituality were associated with improved quality of life, life satisfaction, mental health, and resilience for individuals affected by spinal cord injury.Health professionals can enhance the role that spirituality plays in spinal rehabilitation by incorporating the spiritual beliefs of individuals and their family members into assessment and intervention.By drawing upon meaning-making tools, such as narrative therapy, incorporating peer support, and assisting clients who report a decline in spirituality, health professionals can provide additional support to individuals and their family members as they adjust to changes after spinal cord injury. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd.

Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ID) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with more than 50 mutated genes to date. ID is characterized by deficits in memory skills and language development with difficulty in learning, problem solving, and adaptive behaviors, and affects ∼1% of the population. For detection of disease-causing mutations in such a heterogeneous disorder, homozygosity mapping together with exome sequencing is a powerful approach, as almost all known genes can be assessed simultaneously in a high-throughput manner. In this study, a hemizygous c.786C>G:p.Ile262Met in the testis specific protein Y-encoded-like 2 (TSPYL2) gene and a homozygous c.11335G>A:p.Asp3779Asn in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2) gene were detected after genome-wide genotyping and exome sequencing in a consanguineous Pakistani family with two boys with mild ID. Mutations in the LRP2 gene have previously been reported in patients with Donnai–Barrow and Stickler syndromes. LRP2 has also been associated with a 2q locus for autism (AUTS5). The TSPYL2 variant is not listed in any single-nucleotide polymorphism databases, and the LRP2 variant was absent in 400 ethnically matched healthy control chromosomes, and is not listed in single-nucleotide polymorphism databases as a common polymorphism. The LRP2 mutation identified here is located in one of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor class A domains, which is a cysteine-rich repeat that plays a central role in mammalian cholesterol metabolism, suggesting that alteration of cholesterol processing pathway can contribute to ID. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hordacre B.,Flinders University | Bradnam L.V.,Applied Brain Research | Bradnam L.V.,Flinders University | Bradnam L.V.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Reorganization of primary motor cortex (M1) is well-described in long-term lower limb amputees. In contrast cortical reorganization during the rehabilitation period after amputation is poorly understood. Thirteen transtibial amputees and 13 gender matched control participants of similar age were recruited. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticomotor and intracortical excitability of M1 bilaterally. Neurophysiological assessments were conducted at admission, prosthetic casting, first walk and discharge. Gait variability at discharge was assessed as a functional measure. Compared to controls, amputees had reduced short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) for the ipsilateral M1 at admission (p = 0.01). Analysis across rehabilitation revealed SICI was reduced for the contralateral M1 at first walk compared to discharge (p = 0.003). For the ipsilateral M1 both short and long-latency intracortical inhibition were reduced at admission (p < 0.05) and prosthetic casting (p < 0.02). Analysis of the neurophysiology and gait function revealed several interesting relationships. For the contralateral M1, reduced inhibition at admission (p = 0.04) and first walk (p = 0.05) was associated with better gait function. For the ipsilateral M1, reduced inhibition at discharge (p = 0.05) was associated with poor gait function. This study characterized intracortical excitability in rehabilitating amputees. A dichotomous relationship between reduced intracortical inhibition for each M1 and gait function was observed at different times. Intracortical inhibition may be an appropriate cortical biomarker of gait function in lower limb amputees during rehabilitation, but requires further investigation. Understanding M1 intracortical excitability of amputees undertaking prosthetic rehabilitation provides insight into brain reorganization in the sub-acute post-amputation period and may guide future studies seeking to improve rehabilitation outcomes. © 2015 Hordacre, Bradnam, Barr, Patritti and Crotty.

Alvarez J.,Applied Brain Research | Meyer F.L.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Meyer F.L.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Granoff D.L.,Lake Erie Brain Performance Institute
Integrative Cancer Therapies | Year: 2013

Background and hypotheses. Postcancer cognitive impairment (PCCI) is observed in a substantial number of breast cancer survivors, persisting for as long as 20 years in some subgroups. Although compensatory strategies are frequently suggested, no restorative interventions have yet been identified. This study examined the feasibility of EEG biofeedback (" neurofeedback") and its potential effectiveness in reducing PCCI as well as the fatigue, sleep disturbance, and psychological symptoms that frequently accompany PCCI. Study design. This was a 6-month prospective study with a waitlist control period followed by an active intervention. Participants were female breast cancer survivors (n = 23), 6 to 60 months postchemotherapy, with self-reported cognitive impairment. Methods. Four self-report outcome measures (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function [FACT-Cog], Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue [FACIT-Fatigue], Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI], and Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI]-18) were administered 3 times during a 10-week waitlist control period, 3 times during a 10-week (20-session) neurofeedback training regimen, and once at 4 weeks postneurofeedback. Results. All 23 participants completed the study, demonstrating the feasibility of EEG biofeedback in this population. Initially, the sample demonstrated significant dysfunction on all measures compared with general population norms. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed strongly significant improvements (P <.001) on all 4 cognitive measures (perceived cognitive impairment, comments from others, perceived cognitive abilities, and impact on quality of life [QOL]), the fatigue scale, and the 4 psychological scales (somatization, depression, anxiety and global severity index) as well as on 3 of 8 sleep scales (quality, daytime dysfunction, and global). Two of the other sleep scales (latency and disturbance) were significant at P <.01, and 1 (use of medication) at P <.05; 2 were not significant. Improvements were generally linear across the course of training, and were maintained at the follow-up testing. At the follow-up testing, the sample no longer differed significantly from normative populations on 3 of the 4 FACT-Cog measures (impairment, impact on QOL, and comments), FACIT-Fatigue, PSQI sleep quality and habitual efficiency, or any of the BSI-18 measures of psychological disturbance. Conclusions. Data from this limited study suggest that EEG biofeedback has potential for reducing the negative cognitive and emotional sequelae of cancer treatment as well as improving fatigue and sleep patterns. © The Author(s) 2013.

Applied Brain Research | Date: 2013-12-02

Methods, systems and apparatus that provide for perceptual, cognitive, and motor behaviors in an integrated system implemented using neural architectures. Components of the system communicate using artificial neurons that implement neural networks. The connections between these networks form representationsreferred to as semantic pointerswhich model the various firing patterns of biological neural network connections. Semantic pointers can be thought of as elements of a neural vector space, and can implement a form of abstraction level filtering or compression, in which high-dimensional structures can be abstracted one or more times thereby reducing the number of dimensions needed to represent a particular structure.

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