Rayala S.,Applied and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory |
Francis V.G.,Applied and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory |
Sivagnanam U.,Applied and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory |
Gummadi S.N.,Applied and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014
Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (hPLSCR1), a type II integral class membrane protein, is known to mediate bidirectional scrambling of phospholipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner. hPLSCR2, a homolog of hPLSCR1 that lacks N-terminal prolinerich domain (PRD), did not show scramblase activity. We attribute this absence of scramblase activity of hPLSCR2 to the lack of N-terminal PRD. Hence to investigate the above hypothesis, we added the PRD of hPLSCR1 to hPLSCR2 (PRDhPLSCR2) and checked whether scramblase activity was restored. Functional assays showed that the addition of PRD to hPLSCR2 restored scrambling activity, and deletion of PRD in hPLSCR1 (ΔPRD-hPLSCR1) resulted in a lack of activity. These results suggest that PRD is crucial for the function of the protein. The effects of the PRD deletion in hPLSCR1 and the addition of PRD to hPLSCR2 were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. Our results clearly showed that hPLSCR1 and PRD-hPLSCR2 showed Ca2+-dependent aggregation and scrambling activity, whereas hPLSCR2 andΔPRD-hPLSCR1 did not show aggregation and activity. Thus we conclude that scramblases exhibit Ca2+-dependent scrambling activity by aggregation of protein. Our results provide a possible mechanism for phospholipid scrambling mediated by PLSCRs and the importance of PRD in its function and cellular localization.