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Nürnberg, Germany

Thorsen J.E.,Application Center | Gudmundsson O.,Danfoss A/S | Brand M.,Danfoss A/S | Ram-Bell A.D.,Ramboll
Euroheat and Power (English Edition) | Year: 2015

The 4th generation district heating (DH) system is discussed with increased focus on the integrated energy system including buildings and integration of low quality fluctuating renewable energy sources and surplus heat. Geothermal heat at a temperature level suitable to the 4th generation DH can be accessed in most places with 2000 to 3500 m deep boreholes. An interesting heat source for DH is the surplus heat from generating district cooling. For the 4th generation DH, the control could not only focus on the static heat demand of the buildings, but also on the energy flexibilities, provided by the passive thermal masses in the building or by a heat storage capacity. The aim is to avoid expensive and inefficient peak load boiler operation, but also to bring the energy flexibilities into play when dynamically optimizing the energy system operation across the energy carriers. The intelligent control will be based on model predictive control principles, where indirect incentives like variable prices for energy will be a part of it. An important aspect regarding the realization of the 4th generation DH concept is to ensure suitable planning, cost and motivational structures in relation to the operation as well as to strategic investments. Source


Thorsen E.,Application Center | Gudmundsson O.,Danfoss A/S
Euroheat and Power (English Edition) | Year: 2012

Experts state that a key challenge involves reducing the temperature levels in the district heating (DH) networks to realize their potential in decreasing primary energy use around the world. One of the concerns in the transition from high temperature supply to low temperature supply networks is the potential increased flow rates that are needed to supply the same amount of heat energy from DH utility to the consumers. It is expected that increasing the flow rates in the network will increase the pressure loss in the network, which will need to be compensated for. Booster pumps can be utilized in the network at different locations to increase the pressure to acceptable levels and solve the problem and maintain adequate pressure. It is expected that higher flow rates will be needed to transport sufficient energy to fulfill the customers heat demands when an existing DH network is changed from high to low temperature network. Source


Visani D.,TU Eindhoven | Visani D.,University of Bologna | Okonkwo C.M.,TU Eindhoven | Loquai S.,Application Center | And 9 more authors.
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2010

We report multi-Gbit/s capacity in 1-mm diameter graded index plastic optical fiber exploiting low-cost eye safe compliant transceivers. Transmission rates between 5.3 and 7.6 Gbit/s are achieved for lengths between 10 and 50m using DMT. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source


Visani D.,TU Eindhoven | Visani D.,University of Bologna | Okonkwo C.M.,TU Eindhoven | Loquai S.,Application Center | And 9 more authors.
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2010

We report multi-Gbit/s capacity in 1-mm diameter graded index plastic optical fiber exploiting low-cost eye safe compliant transceivers. Transmission rates between 5.3 and 7.6 Gbit/s are achieved for lengths between 10 and 50m using DMT. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source


Thorsen J.E.,Application Center | Gudmundsson O.,Danfoss A/S | Brand M.,Danfoss A/S
Euroheat and Power (English Edition) | Year: 2015

The first generation development in district heating technology is discussed. The main characteristic of the first generation DH system was that the heat was transported with steam. The consumers were small urban industries who used steam in their processes and large heat consumers. Currently Hofer, the DH utility for inner Copanhagen is converting the existing steam system into a hot water system. The plan is to have the system fully converted by the year 2021. There are only few benefits using steam in district heating networks. The main benefit is that in addition to space heating the high temperature steam can be used for high temperature demands, as driving heat in local absorption chillers. Source

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