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Bientzle M.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Bientzle M.,App Media | Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Kimmerle J.,App Media
Medical Education | Year: 2013

Objectives: In their work, health care professionals have to deal daily with inconsistent health information and are confronted with differing therapeutic health concepts. Medical education should prepare students to handle these challenges adequately. The aim of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of how students deal with inconsistencies in health knowledge when they are presented with either a therapeutic concept they accept or one they reject. Methods: Seventy-six students of physiotherapy participated in this 2 × 2 experiment with health information (consistent versus inconsistent information) and therapeutic concept (congruent versus contradictory therapeutic concept) as between-group factors. The participants' task was to improve the quality of a text about the effectiveness of stretching; participants were randomly assigned to one of four texts. Knowledge acquisition and text modification were measured as dependent variables. Results: Students acquired more knowledge when they worked with a text containing inconsistent information. Medical information that was presented in agreement with a student's therapeutic concept was also more readily acquired than the same information presented posing a contradictory therapeutic concept. Participants modified the contradictory text in order to adapt it to their own point of view. Disagreement resulted in a disregard or devaluation of the information itself, which in turn was detrimental to learning. Conclusions: It is a problem when prospective health care professionals turn a blind eye to discrepancies that do not fit their view of the world. It may be useful for educational purposes to include a knowledge conflict caused by a combination of conviction and inconsistent information to facilitate learning processes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Dehler J.,University of Fribourg | Bodemer D.,App Media | Buder J.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Hesse F.W.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

Computer-mediated collaboration is not in and of itself a beneficial setting for learning. Environments for computer-mediated collaboration need to trigger learning-productive interactions. In this paper, we propose to implement tools providing group knowledge awareness (GKA), i.e., information about collaborators' knowledge. GKA is typically restricted in CSCL environments. A GKA tool visualizing self-assessed learner knowledge, their partner's self-assessed knowledge, and thus the distribution of knowledge, was studied in a computer-mediated collaborative learning scenario. Thirty-eight dyads were randomly assigned to either the GKA condition (GKA tool) or a control condition (only learner's own knowledge was visualized). Results show that the GKA tool guided learners in their collaboration and, more specifically, in designing their communicative acts. Depending on the self- vs. partner-oriented purpose of the communicative act, the learner's own vs. the partner's knowledge guided communication. Guided communication was a mechanism for perceived learning gains and perceived knowledge convergence. A knowledge test failed to reveal a significant difference between the GKA and the control condition. In this paper, we will discuss characteristics of GKA tools and their impact on collaboration. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kimmerle J.,App Media | Moskaliuk J.,App Media | Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2011

Computer-supported learning and knowledge building play an increasing role in online collaboration. This paper outlines some theories concerning the interplay between individual processes of learning and collaborative processes of knowledge building. In particular, it describes the co-evolution model that attempts to examine processes of learning and knowledge building by working on wikis. We report an experimental study that aimed at testing some predictions of this model empirically. The results support the assumption that accommodative knowledge building and a development of conceptual knowledge takes place particularly when there is incongruity at a medium level between people's knowledge and the information contained in a digital artefact. In contrast, assimilative knowledge building and the development of factual knowledge depends largely on people's prior knowledge. Concluding, the consequences of these findings on educational uses of wikis are discussed. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).

Halatchliyski I.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Moskaliuk J.,App Media | Kimmerle J.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning | Year: 2014

This article discusses the relevance of large-scale mass collaboration for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research, adhering to a theoretical perspective that views collective knowledge both as substance and as participatory activity. In an empirical study using the German Wikipedia as a data source, we explored collective knowledge as manifested in the structure of artifacts that were created through the collaborative activity of authors with different levels of contribution experience. Wikipedia's interconnected articles were considered at the macro level as a network and analyzed using a network analysis approach. The focus of this investigation was the relation between the authors' experience and their contribution to two types of articles: central pivotal articles within the artifact network of a single knowledge domain and boundary-crossing pivotal articles within the artifact network of two adjacent knowledge domains. Both types of pivotal articles were identified by measuring the network position of artifacts based on network analysis indices of topological centrality. The results showed that authors with specialized contribution experience in one domain predominantly contributed to central pivotal articles within that domain. Authors with generalized contribution experience in two domains predominantly contributed to boundary-crossing pivotal articles between the knowledge domains. Moreover, article experience (i.e., the number of articles in both domains an author had contributed to) was positively related to the contribution to both types of pivotal articles, regardless of whether an author had specialized or generalized domain experience. We discuss the implications of our findings for future studies in the field of CSCL. © 2013 International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc. and Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Held C.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Kimmerle J.,App Media
Computers and Education | Year: 2013

Tag clouds generated in social tagging systems can capture the collective knowledge of communities. Using as a basis spreading activation theories, information foraging theory, and the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, we present here a model for an extended information scent, which proposes that both collective and individual knowledge have a significant influence on link selection, incidental learning, and information processing. Two experimental studies tested the applicability of the model to a situation in which individual knowledge and collective knowledge were contradictory to each other. The results of the first experiment showed that a higher individual strength of association between a target in demand and a tag led to a higher probability of selecting corresponding links, combined with less thorough information processing for non-corresponding links. But users also adapted their navigation behavior to the collective knowledge (strength of associations of tags) of the community and showed incidental learning during navigation, which resulted in a change of their individual strength of associations. The second experiment confirmed these results and showed, in addition, that the effects also occurred for indirect associations. Altogether, the results show that the extended information scent is an appropriate and fertile model for describing the interplay of individual knowledge and the collective knowledge of social tags. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Moskaliuk J.,App Media | Kimmerle J.,App Media | Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

Wikis as shared digital artifacts may enable users to participate in processes of knowledge building. To what extent and with which quality knowledge building can take place is assumed to depend on the interrelation between people's prior knowledge and the information available in a wiki. In two experimental studies we examined the impact on learning and knowledge building of the redundancy (Study 1) and polarity (Study 2) between participants' prior knowledge and information available in the wiki. Based on the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, external assimilation and accommodation were used as dependent variables to measure knowledge building. The results supported the hypotheses that a medium level of redundancy and a high level of polarity foster external accommodation processes. External assimilation was stimulated by low redundancy and a high level of polarity. Moreover, we found that individual learning was influenced by the degree of external assimilation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wodzicki K.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Schwammlein E.,Knowledge Media Research Center | Moskaliuk J.,App Media
Internet and Higher Education | Year: 2012

Social media open up multiple options to add a new dimension to learning and knowledge processes. Particularly, social networking sites allow students to connect formal and informal learning settings. Students can find like-minded people and organize informal knowledge exchange for educational purposes. However, little is known about in which way students use social networking sites for informal learning and about characteristics of these students. In this paper, three studies examined the study-related knowledge exchange via StudiVZ, the German equivalent of Facebook. Results indicated that about one fifth of participants exchange study-related knowledge through StudiVZ and that these students are especially freshers seeking contact with other students and orientation. Consistent with previous research, it is shown that students use social networking sites mainly for social interaction and integration. However, results also imply that communication about social issues on social networking sites goes hand in hand with study-related knowledge exchange. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Kimmerle J.,App Media | Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2013

In computer-supported information exchange, people frequently tend to withhold their own information and free-ride on the others' contributions. In doing so, they save costs (time and effort) and maximize their own benefit. However, if everyone behaved in this way, there would be no information sharing at all. In this experiment, we tested if the presentation of a random number could serve as a cognitive anchor and influence the amount of shared information. The experimental setting had all the features of an information-exchange dilemma. Before participants could share information, a random generator presented a random number. It was found that this number served as a cognitive anchor and influenced both the participants' behavioral intentions and their actual behavior. Particularly, the high anchor increased cooperation, even though enhanced cooperation was obviously detrimental to the individual's own benefit. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Al-Naser M.,App Media | Soderstrom U.,App Media
Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering | Year: 2012

When only non-occluded image parts are available for facial images it is difficult or impossible to correctly recognize the person in the image. The problem addressed in this work is reconstruction of the occluded parts in facial images; e.g. eyes covered with sunglasses. Asymmetrical Principal Component Analysis (aPCA) allows estimation of occluded facial parts based on the content of the facial parts which are visible. aPCA is used to estimate full non-occluded faces from 3 kinds of occlusion with 2 different reconstruction methods in this work and we present the results with both objective and subjective evaluation. The subjective evaluation shows that clear and sharp image regions are preferred even if this results in visible edges in the images. The method also performs well when a different facial expression than the one in the database is used to calculate the reconstruction parameters. © 2012-IOS Press and the author(s). All rights reserved.

This article exemplifies an approach to analyzing political arguments and press deliberation on the issue of climate change and oil policy. I apply political discourse analysis to examine an oil minister's press conference presentation of the key official document on Norway's future oil policy, and evaluate how he attempted to reconcile the country's expansive petroleum policy with its self-proclaimed ambition of being world leading in responsible climate policy. The analysis displays how the minister's argumentation served to legitimate an expansive oil policy by projecting an altruistic motivation and invoking the authority of the tradition of the industry. This is supplemented by an analysis of newspaper editorials and commentaries on the speech, identifying a major split in viewpoints between local and national newspapers. The analyses evaluate arguments in an explicit manner, for example by critically questioning their value premises, thus suggesting an approach that could benefit critical research on environmental communication. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

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