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Davoodi J.,University of Tehran | Ghahremani M.-H.,University of Tehran | Es-haghi A.,University of Tehran | Mohammad-gholi A.,University of Tehran | MacKenzie A.,Apoptosis Research Center
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Ability of the full length NAIP and its BIR3 domain in inhibition of the proteases of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway was investigated. Activity of endogenous executioner caspases was drastically reduced by both recombinant NAIP-BIR3 (NBIR3) and the full length protein. Western blotting experiments showed that the full length NAIP and its BIR3 domain inhibited the cleavage of procaspase-3 by apoptosome activated caspase-9. Moreover, full length NAIP inhibited autocatalytic processing of procaspase-9 in the apoptosome complex indicating that unlike other inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) human NAIP is an inhibitor of procaspase-9. Furthermore, inhibition of single-chain caspase-9 (human caspase-9, D315, D330/A point mutations that abrogate the proteolytic processing but not the catalytic activity of caspase-9) by the BIR3 domain indicated that the this domain is the caspase-9 interacting moiety. Consistently, pull-down experiments of single-chain capsase-9 in apoptosome complex by the NBIR3 but not the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)-BIR3 domain confirmed that the protein can associate with procaspase-9 prior to its autoproteolysis upon apoptosome formation. Interaction studies revealed the association of C338W variant of the NBIR3, but not the wild type protein with both SMAC-peptide and the SMAC protein. These data indicate that mutation of C338 to Trp is sufficient to accommodate the interaction of NAIP-BIR3 with SMAC-peptide and protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NAIP is evolved to prevent apoptosis right at the initiation stage of apoptosome formation and this inhibition cannot be antagonized by SMAC-type proteins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Otomo A.,Tokai University | Kunita R.,Tokai University | Suzuki-Utsunomiya K.,Tokai University | Ikeda J.-E.,Tokai University | And 2 more authors.
FEBS Letters

Loss of ALS2/alsin function accounts for several recessive motor neuron diseases. ALS2 is a Rab5 activator and its endosomal localization is regulated by Rac1 via macropinocytosis. Here, we show that the pathogenic missense ALS2 mutants fail to be localized to Rac1-induced macropinosomes as well as endosomes, which leads to loss of the ALS2 function as a Rab5 activator on endosomes. Further, these mutants lose the competence to enhance the formation of amphisomes, the hybrid-organelle formed upon fusion between autophagosomes and endosomes. Thus, Rac1-induced relocalization of ALS2 might be crucial to exert the ALS2 function associated with the autophagy-endolysosomal degradative pathway. Structured summary: Rac1 physically interacts with ALS2 by pull down (View interaction) Rab5A physically interacts with ALS2 by pull down (View Interaction 1, 2) ALS2 and EEA1 colocalize by fluorescence microscopy (View Interaction 1, 2, 3) ALS2 physically interacts with ALS2 by anti tag coimmunoprecipitation (View interaction) © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Muaddi H.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Muaddi H.,McGill University | Majumder M.,University of Western States | Peidis P.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell

Various forms of stress induce pathways that converge on the phosphorylation of the alpha (α) subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 at serine 51 (S51), a modification that results in a global inhibition of protein synthesis. In many cases eIF2α phosphorylation is a biological response that facilitates cells to cope with stressful environments. Glucose deficiency, an important form of stress, is associated with an induction of apoptosis. Herein, we demonstrate that eIF2α phosphorylation is a key step in maintaining a balance between the life and death of a glucose-deficient cell. That is, eIF2α phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch that shifts cells from a proapoptotic to a cytoprotective state in response to prolonged glucose deficiency. This adaptation process is associated with the timely expression of proteins and activation of pathways with significant contributions to cell survival and adaptation including the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). We also show that among the eIF2α kinases GCN2 plays a proapoptotic role whereas PERK and PKR play a cytoprotective one in response to glucose deficiency. Our data demonstrate that eIF2α phosphorylation is a significant determinant of survival and adaptation of glucose-deficient cells with possible important implications in biological processes that interfere with glucose metabolism. © 2010 H. Muaddi et al. Source

Thakor N.,Apoptosis Research Center | Holcik M.,Apoptosis Research Center | Holcik M.,University of Ottawa
Nucleic Acids Research

Physiological and pathophysiological stress attenuates global translation via phosphorylation of eIF2α. This in turn leads to the reprogramming of gene expression that is required for adaptive stress response. One class of cellular messenger RNAs whose translation was reported to be insensitive to eIF2α phosphorylation-mediated repression of translation is that harboring an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES). IRES-mediated translation of several apoptosis-regulating genes increases in response to hypoxia, serum deprivation or gamma irradiation and promotes tumor cell survival and chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanism that allows IRES-mediated translation to continue in an eIF2α-independent manner is not known. Here we have used the X-chromosome linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis, XIAP, IRES to address this question. Using toeprinting assay, western blot analysis and polysomal profiling we show that the XIAP IRES supports cap-independent translation when eIF2α is phosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo. During normal growth condition eIF2α-dependent translation on the IRES is preferred. However, IRES-mediated translation switches to eIF5B-dependent mode when eIF2α is phosphorylated as a consequence of cellular stress. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Kennedy D.,Apoptosis Research Center | Jager R.,Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences | Mosser D.D.,University of Guelph | Samali A.,Apoptosis Research Center

Thermotolerance, the acquired resistance of cells to stress, is a well-established phenomenon. Studies of the key mediators of this response, the heat shock proteins (HSPs), have led to the discovery of the important roles played by these proteins in the regulation of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis is critical for normal tissue homeostasis and is involved in diverse processes including development and immune clearance. Apoptosis is tightly regulated by both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors, and dysregulation of apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. In the recent years, HSPs have been identified as key determinants of cell survival, which can modulate apoptosis by directly interacting with components of the apoptotic machinery. Therefore, manipulation of the HSPs could represent a viable strategy for the treatment of diseases. Here, we review the current knowledge with regard to the mechanisms of HSP-mediated regulation of apoptosis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Source

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