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El Alfy M.,Ain Shams University | Sari T.T.,University of Malaya | Lee C.L.,Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital | Tricta F.,ApoPharma Inc. | El-Beshlawy A.,Cairo University
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2010

Limited data are available on the use of deferiprone in children younger than 10 years of age. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new liquid formulation of deferiprone for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in children 1-10 years old. One hundred children (91 thalassemia major, 8? Hb E-β thalassemia, and 1 sickle cell disease) were enrolled for a 6-month treatment with deferiprone (50 to 100 mg/kg/d). The safety profile was similar to or better than that reported in earlier studies with deferiprone tablets in older children and adults. No unexpected adverse reactions were observed. Gastrointestinal intolerance (GI) was observed in 11% and an increased serum ALT in 12% of the children. Both events were transient. Mild neutropenia, observed in 6% of patients, did not progress to agranulocytosis and resolved despite continuous deferiprone treatment. Two patients experienced agranulocytosis that resolved without complications upon discontinuation of therapy. Deferiprone use was associated with a significant decline in mean serum ferritin level from 2532±1463 μg/L at baseline to 2176±1144? μg/L (P<0.0005). The results of this study show a favorable benefit/risk ratio of deferiprone oral solution for the treatment of young children with transfusional iron overload. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Trademark
ApoPharma Inc | Date: 2008-04-15

Activity Books, Comic Books, Paper products, namely, writing pads, stationary, envelopes and postcards; used to encourage children, and their families facing challenges unique to an iron load condition such as thalassaemia.


Trademark
ApoPharma Inc. | Date: 2009-04-28

Activity Books, Comic Books, Paper products, namely, writing pads, stationary, envelopes and postcards; used to encourage children, and their families facing challenges unique to an iron load condition such as thalassaemia.


Hanauske-Abel H.M.,Rutgers University | Saxena D.,Rutgers University | Palumbo P.E.,Rutgers University | Hanauske A.-R.,Oncology Center and Medical Clinic | And 20 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. © 2013. Source


El-Beshlawy A.M.,Cairo University | El-Alfy M.S.,Ain Shams University | Sari T.T.,Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital | Chan L.L.,University of Malaya | Tricta F.,ApoPharma Inc.
European Journal of Haematology | Year: 2014

Approximately 6% of patients with thalassemia receiving deferiprone develop neutropenia. Present practice is to monitor absolute neutrophil count (ANC) weekly and to interrupt treatment at the first sign of neutropenia, lest continuation lead to progressive neutrophil reduction. In a 6-month study evaluating the safety and efficacy of a liquid form of deferiprone in 100 children, ANC was initially checked weekly for all patients. For individuals experiencing mild neutropenia, deferiprone was continued but monitoring was increased to daily until resolution. Therapy was to be suspended only if the episode was prolonged or if it worsened. Four patients experienced single episodes of mild neutropenia, and two others each experienced two episodes. All eight episodes resolved within 4-7 d despite continued therapy. (One patient later developed agranulocytosis and had treatment terminated.) This study showed that not all cases of mild neutropenia during deferiprone therapy develop into agranulocytosis, and suggests that many may not be caused by deferiprone. Transient declines in ANC to levels defined as neutropenic are common even in healthy individuals, particularly children; and it could be that the frequent monitoring of ANC mandated during deferiprone therapy may reveal cases of transient neutropenia that would otherwise have gone undetected and resolved on their own without clinical consequences. In patients with thalassemia, several factors increase the probability of a transient fall in ANC. These findings raise the question of whether deferiprone should be routinely stopped in cases of mild neutropenia, provided that such patients have their ANC monitored more frequently during the neutropenic episode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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