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Cameldi I.,University of Bologna | Neri F.,University of Bologna | Ventrucci D.,Apofruit | Ceredi G.,Apofruit | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

The influence of four different harvest times on the bull’s eye rot of ‘Cripps Pink’ apple caused by Neofabraea spp. was investigated in two orchards harvested at four different times. In addition, a control strategy based on chemical treatments performed in preharvest or post- harvest was evaluated. Regression analysis between harvest time and disease incidence revealed high r2 values (>0.75). All preharvest fungicide treatments significantly (P < 0.0085) reduced the bull’s eye rot incidence; however, thiophanate-methyl (achieving >87% con- trol) was more effective than a mixture of pyraclostrobin and boscalid ‘Cripps Pink’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which originated from a cross between ‘Lady Williams’ and ‘Golden Delicious’, is a late-maturing and long-storing cultivar, superior in size, appearance, and flavor relative to those of other late-maturing cultivars (Cripps et al. 1993). Since 1990, this cultivar has been cultivated in major apple-producing areas of the world (IPLA 2015). Although Cripps Pink apple represents a small portion of world apple production (1%), it frequently commands a premium value. In Europe, to achieve the best fruit color for marketing, Cripps Pink apple is generally harvested in a period that extends from the end of October to the end of November. Cripps Pink apple is fairly resistant to bitter pit and, if harvested at the correct maturity stage and stored in a controlled atmosphere, it also shows a low susceptibility to superficial scald (Cripps et al. 1993). After storage for 3 to 4 months at 0°C, Cripps Pink fruit frequently develops bull’s eye rot, which is caused by several species of Neofabraea (Soto-Alvear et al. 2013; Spotts et al. 2009; Verkley 1999). Previous in- vestigations (Edney 1964; Spotts 1990; Verhoeff 1974; White and Wilkinson 1962) have well documented that the pathogen infects apple fruit in the orchard prior to harvest and remains latent in the fruit for several months. Although Neofabraea spp. can produce cankers in the twigs (Henriquez et al. 2006), fruit remains symptomless in the field, developing lesions only during storage. Initially, the symptoms are restricted to lenticels as circular necrotic areas, usually flat or slightly concave, dark, and firm. The incidence of disease varies considerably, depending on weather conditions; however, in humid areas with abundant rain and persistent fog close to harvest, bull’s eye rot can affect over 50% of the fruit (Spotts et al. 2009). Partial control of bull’s eye rot can be achieved by repeated applications of fungicides such as captan, phenyl-pirroles, and strobilurines during the 2 months preceding harvest (Giraud and Bompeix 2012; Henriquez et al. 2006; Minář 2006). Late-season and postharvest use of fungicides on apple, however, is under scrutiny by the (<80.7%) or fludioxonil (<57.6%), in all trials. Compared with non- treated control fruit, a postharvest treatment with the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) halved the incidence of infection in three of four experiments. However, a combination of two preharvest treatments with a mixture of pyraclostrobin plus boscalid and one post- harvest 1-MPC treatment suppressed bull’s eye rot to a significantly (P < 0.00001) greater degree (achieving >87.5% control) than the single treatments with pyraclostrobin and boscalid (<65%) and 1-MCP (<80%) tested alone. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.

Famiani F.,University of Perugia | Baldicchi A.,University of Perugia | Farinelli D.,University of Perugia | Cruz-Castillo J.G.,University of the East of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Yield and fruit characteristics from nine orchards of the cultivar 'Hayward' were investigated in 2007-2008. The two-year average yield ranged from 24. t/ha to 49. t/ha. Yield was negatively related (P≤ 0.01) to fruit dry matter content (DMC) and total titratable acidity (TTA) at harvest and total soluble solids (TSS) and flesh firmness after 5 months of storage. Fruit DMC at harvest was positively related to TSS (P≤ 0.001) and flesh firmness (P≤ 0.01) after 5 months of storage. At harvest, fruit DMC was also positively related (P≤ 0.001) to non-structural carbohydrate content (glucose + fructose + sucrose + starch); moreover, the non-structural carbohydrate content was positively related (P≤ 0.05) to TTA and citrate and malate contents. Fruit DMC at harvest was also positively related (P≤ 0.05) to the content of structural material, estimated as the difference between DMC and the measured non-structural carbohydrates and titratable organic acids. The content of fruit structural material at harvest was positively related (P≤ 0.05) to flesh firmness after 5 months of storage. After 5 months of storage, also the TSS was positively related (P≤ 0.01) to the flesh firmness. Finally, there was a positive relationship (P≤ 0.05) between fruit starch content and flesh firmness after 5 months of storage. The results showed that a very high fruit load can have negative effects on fruit DMC and TTA at harvest and TSS and flesh firmness after storage. Moreover, a higher DMC, besides being related with a higher TSS in ripe fruits, was also associated with a higher TTA and organic acids content and the retaining of higher flesh firmness during storage. This indicates that fruit DMC may be an indicator of both eating quality and storability of kiwifruits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Cruz-Castillo J.G.,University of the East of Mexico | Baldicchi A.,University of Perugia | Frioni T.,University of Perugia | Marocchi F.,APOFRUIT | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 μL L -1 (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+ 12.6 g fruit-1) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Martini C.,University of Bologna | Guidarelli M.,University of Bologna | Di Francesco A.,University of Bologna | Ceredi G.,Apofruit | Mari M.,University of Bologna
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Monilinia fructicola causes considerable damage to cultivated stone fruits in the temperate regions with an important economic impact. Monitoring the strains resistant to fungicides is essential to reduce economic losses associated with the peach and nectarine market. Although several works have focused on benzimidazole fungicide resistance worldwide in Monilinia spp., limited data report the benzimidazole resistance in European M. fructicola isolates. In order to assay the development of resistance to thiophanate methyl, the Alamar Blue test, a quick and reliable assay, was used and the results compared with those obtained with conventional amended medium. Our results show for the first time the presence in Italian M. fructicola isolates of a phenotype resistant to thiophanate methyl. In particular, 46 out of 63 isolates were found resistant, with EC50 values ranging from 0.99 μg ml-1 to 57.59 μg ml-1, values equal or higher than the inhibitory dose (1 μg ml-1). Point mutations in the β-tubulin gene were analyzed in 18 representative M. fructicola isolates, 15 with different levels of resistance (low and high resistance) and three sensitive. All resistant isolates tested showed a point mutation at codon 198 with respect to sensitive isolates isolates, i.e. GCA instead of GAA. In addition, all Italian isolates revealed a point mutation at codon 83 in the β-tubulin gene where the arginine was converted to glutamine with a punctual allelic change CAA instead of CGA. © 2016, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved.

Mari M.,University of Bologna | Spadoni A.,University of Bologna | Ceredi G.,Apofruit
Stewart Postharvest Review | Year: 2015

Purpose of review: The review deals with alternative technologies to conventional synthetic fungicides to control kiwifruit postharvest diseases. Prolonged and intensive use of these fungicides raises concerns regarding the safety of their residues in fruit and has caused the emergence of fungicide resistant pathogen strains. Alternative treatments were investigated, such as hot water, biological control agents (BCAs), and natural substances. Findings: Kiwifruit production is economically important in many parts of the world, but little is known about means of controlling its postharvest diseases. Many fungi cause postharvest rot of kiwifruit, and their occurrence varies among the production areas. Ripe-rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea and stem-end rot caused by Diaporthe actinidiae prevail in New Zealand, while stem-end rot caused by Botrytis cinerea is the most important postharvest disease of the kiwifruit cultivated in Europe and USA, while in these regions skin pitting by Cadophora luteo-olivacea and Mucor rot caused by Mucor piriformis are less important. In terms of control technique, curing, which is a delay between harvesting and cool storage of fruit, remains an important and safe tool to reduce postharvest losses, but improvements in it are needed. Innovative non-chemical treatments include hot water dipping (45°C for 10 min) for controlling several diseases which has received commercial attention. The application of BCA following curing for 96 h was demonstrated to be effective against B. cinerea. Some natural compounds controlled grey mould well in artificially and naturally infected fruit. Limitations: Regulatory barriers to the registrations of BCAs and natural substances in several countries do not encourage the dissemination of these methods. In addition, further investigations into these alternative techniques are needed to support their validity. Direction for further research: A multifaceted approach that employs integrated strategies could raise efficacy to meet commercial needs. For example, stem wound infections could be inhibited by incubating fruit at 10°C for 96 h or more, then followed by BCA or natural substance application that can increase the effectiveness of the treatment. However, the eco-friendly hot water treatment used after curing could be an immediately employable means for the control of postharvest decay in organic production, since regulatory approval of it is not needed. © 2015 SPS (UK) Ltd.

Sansavini S.,University of Bologna | Sorrenti G.,University of Bologna | Del Vecchio G.L.,Apofruit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

In Italy the "minimal pruning system" (a definition derived from the grapevine pruning technique) is generally utilized in peach orchards. One of its main rules is to initially obtain a "free spindle bush" shape, avoiding cutting back the scion at planting time but using lateral shoots to form future fruiting branches. This experiment involved a comparison of three high density peach plots of 0.5 ha each (with 1,500, 1,100 and 1,100 trees/ha), two varieties ('Big Top' and 'Magique') budded on GF677, that were trained until the 4th year, according to three "minimal pruning techniques" applied for the free bush system. The trees were converted to a proper "spindlebush" trees between the 3rd and 4th year and resulted in: 1) equilibrated minimal pruning, practiced during Winter and Summer; 2) reduced pruning time, through reducing the number of pruning cuts, utilizing several temporary fruiting branches (4-6/tree) and pruning only in Winter; 3) further reduction of the number of cuts (time) and then equilibrating the load of fruit with thinning and pruning, leaving more fruiting branches (up to 6-10/tree) in Summer. The "free spindle bush" at a density of 1,500 trees/ha performed very well when an equilibrated method of pruning was applied (yield of 18-20 kg/tree/yr with 'Big Top' and 55-64 kg/tree/yr from the 2nd to the 4th year with 'Magique', corresponding to a cumulative yield of 192 t/ha up to the 4th year. A further reduction of the pruning time was achieved in plots 2 and 3. By utilizing the production of older wood (branches of 2-3 years) the 'Big Top' trees achieved a higher yield (from 32 to 46 kg/tree/yr), but 'Magique' yields stayed the same. The most significant result of the highest equilibrated HDP system (1,500 tree/ha) was the size of the 'Big Top' fruit: 57% of the fruits were classified as size A and AA, versus 17-21% in the other two systems. With 'Magique' 40% of fruits were sizes A-AA almost comparable with the other two systems. Between the two systems which used old bearing wood, the performance was highest and better (for size) on the second plot (1,100 trees/ha) where the Winter pruned old branches were generally no more than 4-6/tree and therefore most of the best fruiting shoots were maintained on the trees. © 2015 ISHS.

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