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PubMed | Apo Box Inc., Kyungpook National University and MEDDAC K 65th Medical Brigade
Type: | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2016

Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83.84%), followed by Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (13.66%), Culex pipiens Group (1.67%), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (0.54%). Overall, LED traps (188,125) collected significantly more female mosquitoes compared with BL traps (92,230; P=0.0001, P<0.05). Results from these field evaluations significantly enhance vector and disease surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of malaria (Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus).


PubMed | Apo Box Inc., Kyungpook National University and MEDDAC K 65th Medical Brigade
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2017

Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83.84%), followed by Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (13.66%), Culex pipiens Group (1.67%), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (0.54%). Overall, LED traps (188,125) collected significantly more female mosquitoes compared with BL traps (92,230; P=0.0001, P<0.05). Results from these field evaluations significantly enhance vector and disease surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of malaria (Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus).


PubMed | Apo Box Inc. and National Institute of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

As a result of the reintroduction of malaria in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993 and the threat to military and civilian populations, the Korea Military National Defense (MND) increased emphasis on vector control in 2012 at ROK Army (ROKA) installations located near the DMZ, while decreasing chemoprophylaxis, fearing potential drug resistance. Mosquito surveillance demonstrated a need for continuous monitoring of disease patterns among ROKA soldiers and vector malaria infection rates to ensure positive outcomes.Anopheles spp. were collected from May-October at three ROKA installations in three locations near the DMZ. Each of the areas included one installation <2km and two installations 11-12km from the DMZ in Paju and Yeoncheon counties, Gyeonggi Province. Anopheles spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and then assayed for the presence of vivax malaria sporozoites. The ROK MND reported vivax malaria patients monthly to Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Correlations for the incidence of Plasmodium vivax patients and infected Anopheles species were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Pearson correlation test and liner regression analysis.A total of 4282 Anopheles spp. were collected. Anopheles kleini (69.5%) was the most commonly collected, followed by Anopheles pullus (17.3%), Anopheles belenrae (4.5%), Anopheles sineroides (4.2%), Anopheles sinensis sensu stricto (2.7%), and Anopheles lesteri (1.9%). Overall, 21 malaria patients were reported by the ROK MND. The monthly incidence of the malaria patients correlated with the monthly number of Plasmodium vivax sporozoite positive Anopheles spp. The monthly numbers of An. kleini demonstrated the highest correlations to the numbers of ROKA malaria patients throughout the mosquito season (P<0.01). Anopheles spp. positive for P. vivax and malaria patients at ROKA installations located <2km from the DMZ were higher than for ROKA installations located 11-12km from DMZ.The number of Anopheles spp. positive for P. vivax sporozoites correlated with the monthly number of malaria cases and exposure of ROKA soldiers from May-October to P. vivax malaria infections. Malaria vector surveillance and vector control is warranted as part of an effective malaria management program at ROKA installations located near DMZ.


Ahmed S.I.,Landstuhl Regional Medical Center | Ahmed S.I.,Apo Box Inc. | Burns T.C.,U.S. Army | Landt C.,U.S. Army | Hayda R.,Brown University
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma | Year: 2013

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors for heterotopic ossification (HO) formation in high-grade open fractures sustained during combat and to report on the results of HO excision. Design: Retrospective. Setting: United States Army level-1 trauma center. Patients/Participants: Seventy-six consecutive patients with 91 combat-related open Gustilo and Anderson type II and higher fractures were identified from March 1, 2003, through January 30, 2005. Fifty-nine patients with 71 fractures met criteria for study inclusion. Main outcome measurements: Fractures were categorized into HO-present and HO-absent groups based on radiographic imaging. Risk factors such as injury mechanism, injury severity score (ISS), Gustilo and Anderson type, injury location, closed head injury, burn, and infection were compared between the groups. Results: HO was present in 27 of 71 open fractures (38.1%). Variables associated with HO formation included ISS (p = 0.02) and injury location although infection and use of negative pressure therapy were not. Ten of 27 fractures with HO underwent excision. HO did not occur or was mild in 25 tibiae. Conclusions: HO is a common sequela of high-grade open fractures sustained in combat. High ISS and injury location to the shoulder, hip, and femur are risk factors for HO formation. The most common regions for HO excision were the elbow, forearm, and hip with mixed results. Importantly, HO did not seem to be a complication of open high-grade tibia fractures. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Reeves W.K.,1000 East University Avenue | Reeves W.K.,Apo Box Inc. | Miller M.M.,1000 East University Avenue
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2010

Organic insect repellents are of interest to many agricultural producers and animal owners. Geraniol, a plant-derived alcohol, is naturally produced by a wide range of plants and is a US Environmental Protection Agency minimum risk pesticide. Previous studies have shown various concentrations of geraniol repel or kill mosquitoes; however, geraniol might cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans or animals. We tested a commercially available 2 aqueous solution of geraniol on ponies as a mosquito repellent. Five trials were conducted on ponies treated with a 60-ml aerosol mist (30 ml per side) of 2 geraniol or as untreated controls. Animals were observed 3 h postapplication to check for skin irritation. Aedes aegypti, in feeding tubes, were held on the ponies for 7 min. The average percent of biting on control animals was 56, with a range of 1690, and the average for the treatments was 13, with a range of 086. Based on statistical models, there was no significant difference (P 0.081) in the percent bites between treated and untreated animals after 3 h. Based on our data, 2 geraniol was not an adequate mosquito repellent for horses. We did not observe any skin irritation on the animals treated with 2 geraniol. © 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.


Shah A.N.,Apo Box Inc. | Arnold M.J.,CSS 15
Military Medicine | Year: 2011

By the end of calendar year 2010, a total smoking ban on submarines is expected to be implemented throughout the submarine force because of the negative health effects of environmental tobacco smoke and the recently demonstrated exposure of nonsmoking submariners to measurable levels of nicotine during submarine deployments. Historically, smoking has been highly prevalent in the military, but new data on the negative health effects of tobacco have led the military to change its policies, restricting its use in certain environments. A number of research studies have examined the effect of smoking on the military, cessation and prevention interventions, effect of environmental tobacco smoke onboard the submarine, and treatment modalities aimed at smokers attempting to quit. With the potential for considerable physical and psychological effects, a mass tobacco cessation program is being implemented to support the prohibition onboard the submarine. Recommendations for a successful implementation program are included. Copyright © Association of Military Surgeons of the US. All rights reserved.


Stauff M.P.,Apo Box Inc. | Kilgore W.B.,Humboldt Orthopaedic Associates | Joyner P.W.,Duke University | Juliano P.J.,Penn State College of Medicine
Foot and Ankle Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: Percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening (PTAL) is a common procedure performed as an adjunct to other procedures that are used to treat a variety of foot and ankle disorders. Despite the widespread use of PTAL, the only literature to substantiate its efficacy comes from the treatment of forefoot ulceration in diabetics. The complications of the procedure include pain along the Achilles tendon, difficulty using stairs, weakness with toe-off, inadvertent complete tenotomy, and cosmetic appearance. We sought to investigate the functional outcomes specific to PTAL when performed in tandem with triple arthrodesis and subtalar fusion. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of 107 patients who underwent 117 procedures was performed. Outcomes were assessed by telephone interview using a standard questionnaire. The most common procedure in the study population was triple arthrodesis (91%). Results: Fifty-eight percent of the patients reported moderate improvement in motion postoperatively, but 80% reported some degree of persistent stiffness. Despite 38% of patients reporting postoperative weakness, 66% and 61% stated that ascending and descending stairs, respectively, was easier. Conclusion: Overall, 81% of the study population had a positive opinion regarding their surgery. In this heterogeneous population, we showed modest improvement in Achilles tendon-related outcomes when PTAL was performed in tandem with other surgeries. © 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society.


Lynch J.H.,Apo Box Inc. | Deaton T.G.,Naval Medical Center
Current Sports Medicine Reports | Year: 2014

The human body is well adapted to dealing with small variations in atmospheric pressure. However when our pursuit of sport and recreation takes us to extreme altitudes or ocean depths, the change in surrounding pressure has the potential to cause significant morbidity. Sports with more extreme changes in atmospheric pressure such as skydiving and scuba diving commonly place the athlete at risk for barotrauma injuries, especially in the middle ear and sinuses. Middle ear barotrauma occurs when a pressure differential develops between the middle ear and the pressure outside of the tympanic membrane. Early symptoms include ear pain, dizziness, and muffled hearing. When extreme pressure gradients are not relieved, middle ear effusions and rupture of the tympanic membrane can occur. A similar mechanism and injury pattern occurs in the sinuses as well. With proper training and prevention strategies, athletes in these sports can protect themselves from most barotrauma injuries. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


PubMed | Agency for Defense Development, Korea University and Apo Box Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbiology and immunology | Year: 2016

Hantaan virus (HTNV), of the family Bunyaviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Although the majority of epidemiologic studies have found that rodents are seropositive for hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin, the discovery of hantavirus RNA in seronegative hosts has led to an investigation of the presence of HTNV RNA in rodents captured in HFRS endemic areas. HTNV RNA was detected in seven (3.8%) of 186 anti-HTNV IgG seronegative rodents in Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2013-2014. RT-qPCR for HTNV RNA revealed dynamic virus-host interactions of HTNV in areas of high endemicity, providing important insights into the epidemiology of hantaviruses.


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