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Bancroft, IN, United States

Shah A.N.,Apo Box Inc. | Arnold M.J.,CSS 15
Military Medicine | Year: 2011

By the end of calendar year 2010, a total smoking ban on submarines is expected to be implemented throughout the submarine force because of the negative health effects of environmental tobacco smoke and the recently demonstrated exposure of nonsmoking submariners to measurable levels of nicotine during submarine deployments. Historically, smoking has been highly prevalent in the military, but new data on the negative health effects of tobacco have led the military to change its policies, restricting its use in certain environments. A number of research studies have examined the effect of smoking on the military, cessation and prevention interventions, effect of environmental tobacco smoke onboard the submarine, and treatment modalities aimed at smokers attempting to quit. With the potential for considerable physical and psychological effects, a mass tobacco cessation program is being implemented to support the prohibition onboard the submarine. Recommendations for a successful implementation program are included. Copyright © Association of Military Surgeons of the US. All rights reserved.


Katoch C.D.S.,Military Hospital Cardio Thoracic Center | Chandran V.M.,Armed Forces Medical College | Bhattacharyya D.,Military Hospital Cardio Thoracic Center | Barthwal M.S.,Apo Box Inc.
Medical Journal Armed Forces India | Year: 2013

Background: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication in the form of a sinus tract between the pleural space and the bronchial tree. Chronic bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a rare but a serious complication of several pulmonary and postoperative conditions. BPF carries a high morbidity and mortality and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and thus high resource consumption. Till date surgical intervention has been the main stay of management of chronic BPF. Our study was carried out to study the efficacy of sealants like Bioglue, Tissel glue and endobronchial devices like coils to close the BPFs through bronchoscopic interventions in those cases which failed to close with the conventional treatment regimen and progressed to chronicity. Method: This study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. A total 25 patients of chronic BPF/air leaks were selected and subjected to bronchoscopic localization and subsequent intervention using sealants and coils. Results: Total 25 patients with chronic BPF were treated with bronchoscopic interventions using glues, and coils.23 patients were males and 2 were females and 14 were postoperative while 11 patients were non operative. Only smaller fistulas were amenable to glues and coils while there was recurrence in patients with larger air leaks requiring surgical intervention. Conclusion: From this study it is concluded that non-operative bronchoscopic interventions to seal the air leaks are effective only in smaller air leaks i.e. alveolopleural fistula (APF). The larger air leaks like leaking stump and larger bronchopleural fistula have not got long lasting and encouraging results with sealants and endobronchial devices. © 2013, Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS). All rights reserved.


Reeves W.K.,1000 East University Avenue | Reeves W.K.,Apo Box Inc. | Miller M.M.,1000 East University Avenue
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2010

Organic insect repellents are of interest to many agricultural producers and animal owners. Geraniol, a plant-derived alcohol, is naturally produced by a wide range of plants and is a US Environmental Protection Agency minimum risk pesticide. Previous studies have shown various concentrations of geraniol repel or kill mosquitoes; however, geraniol might cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans or animals. We tested a commercially available 2 aqueous solution of geraniol on ponies as a mosquito repellent. Five trials were conducted on ponies treated with a 60-ml aerosol mist (30 ml per side) of 2 geraniol or as untreated controls. Animals were observed 3 h postapplication to check for skin irritation. Aedes aegypti, in feeding tubes, were held on the ponies for 7 min. The average percent of biting on control animals was 56, with a range of 1690, and the average for the treatments was 13, with a range of 086. Based on statistical models, there was no significant difference (P 0.081) in the percent bites between treated and untreated animals after 3 h. Based on our data, 2 geraniol was not an adequate mosquito repellent for horses. We did not observe any skin irritation on the animals treated with 2 geraniol. © 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.


Ahmed S.I.,Landstuhl Regional Medical Center | Ahmed S.I.,Apo Box Inc. | Burns T.C.,U.S. Army | Landt C.,U.S. Army | Hayda R.,Brown University
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma | Year: 2013

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors for heterotopic ossification (HO) formation in high-grade open fractures sustained during combat and to report on the results of HO excision. Design: Retrospective. Setting: United States Army level-1 trauma center. Patients/Participants: Seventy-six consecutive patients with 91 combat-related open Gustilo and Anderson type II and higher fractures were identified from March 1, 2003, through January 30, 2005. Fifty-nine patients with 71 fractures met criteria for study inclusion. Main outcome measurements: Fractures were categorized into HO-present and HO-absent groups based on radiographic imaging. Risk factors such as injury mechanism, injury severity score (ISS), Gustilo and Anderson type, injury location, closed head injury, burn, and infection were compared between the groups. Results: HO was present in 27 of 71 open fractures (38.1%). Variables associated with HO formation included ISS (p = 0.02) and injury location although infection and use of negative pressure therapy were not. Ten of 27 fractures with HO underwent excision. HO did not occur or was mild in 25 tibiae. Conclusions: HO is a common sequela of high-grade open fractures sustained in combat. High ISS and injury location to the shoulder, hip, and femur are risk factors for HO formation. The most common regions for HO excision were the elbow, forearm, and hip with mixed results. Importantly, HO did not seem to be a complication of open high-grade tibia fractures. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Taylor N.,MBDA UK Ltd. | Taylor N.,Apo Box Inc.
22nd AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference | Year: 2015

One of the most fundamental properties affecting the aerodynamic performance of a body is its shape. With progressively increasing demands for performance, the need to explore and optimise the performance of novel airframe shapes rapidly and with robust, efficient processes is becoming increasingly important. This poses significant challenges for the ways in which the associated geometry is generated and manipulated (in support of design) both on its wetted surfaces and in the adjacent air flow (i.e. the computational mesh). This paper reviews the processes associated with handling geometry to support industrial aerodynamic analyses, covering its receipt and preparation for use in analysis, though to its onward delivery. In each case, the key components of each activity are identified and perspectives on the challenges they pose are provided. Examples from the aircraft, turbo- machinery and missile sectors are provided throughout. The material presented illustrates how many of the problems currently encountered derive from fundamental differences between the underlying geometric representations used in Mechanical CAD systems and Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. By identifying recent developments in several disruptive technologies, perspectives on how these differences may be resolved in the future are also provided. © 2015, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved.

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