Baesweiler, Germany
Baesweiler, Germany

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Bode G.H.,Maastricht University | Coue G.,University of Twente | Freese C.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Pickl K.E.,Joanneum Research | And 21 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2017

Targeted delivery of drugs across endothelial barriers remains a formidable challenge, especially in the case of the brain, where the blood–brain barrier severely limits entry of drugs into the central nervous system. Nanoparticle-mediated transport of peptide/protein-based drugs across endothelial barriers shows great potential as a therapeutic strategy in a wide variety of diseases. Functionalizing nanoparticles with peptides allows for more efficient targeting to specific organs. We have evaluated the hemocompatibilty, cytotoxicity, endothelial uptake, efficacy of delivery and safety of liposome, hyperbranched polyester, poly(glycidol) and acrylamide-based nanoparticles functionalized with peptides targeting brain endothelial receptors, in vitro and in vivo. We used an ELISA-based method for the detection of nanoparticles in biological fluids, investigating the blood clearance rate and in vivo biodistribution of labeled nanoparticles in the brain after intravenous injection in Wistar rats. Herein, we provide a detailed report of in vitro and in vivo observations. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Bode G.H.,Maastricht University | Pickl K.E.,Joanneum Research | Sanchez-Purra M.,Ramon Llull University | Albaiges B.,Ramon Llull University | And 34 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Aims: The aim of the current study was to develop a method to detect peptide-linked nanoparticles in blood plasma. Materials & Methods: A convenient enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of peptides functionalized with biotin and fluorescein groups. As a proof of principle, polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate nanoparticles linked to biotin-carboxyfluorescein labeled peptides were intravenously injected in Wistar rats. Serial blood plasma samples were analyzed by ELISA and by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology. Results: The ELISA based method for the detection of FITC labeled peptides had a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. We were able to accurately measure peptides bound to pentafluorophenyl meth-acrylate nanoparticles in blood plasma of rats, and similar results were obtained by LC/MS. Conclusions: We detected FITC-labeled peptides on pentafluorophenyl methacrylate nanoparticles after injection in vivo. This method can be extended to detect nanoparticles with different chemical compositions. © 2015 Bode et al.


PubMed | University of Twente, Ramon Llull University, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Liège and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine | Year: 2016

Targeted delivery of drugs across endothelial barriers remains a formidable challenge, especially in the case of the brain, where the blood-brain barrier severely limits entry of drugs into the central nervous system. Nanoparticle-mediated transport of peptide/protein-based drugs across endothelial barriers shows great potential as a therapeutic strategy in a wide variety of diseases. Functionalizing nanoparticles with peptides allows for more efficient targeting to specific organs. We have evaluated the hemocompatibilty, cytotoxicity, endothelial uptake, efficacy of delivery and safety of liposome, hyperbranched polyester, poly(glycidol) and acrylamide-based nanoparticles functionalized with peptides targeting brain endothelial receptors, in vitro and in vivo. We used an ELISA-based method for the detection of nanoparticles in biological fluids, investigating the blood clearance rate and in vivo biodistribution of labeled nanoparticles in the brain after intravenous injection in Wistar rats. Herein, we provide a detailed report of in vitro and in vivo observations.


Kessler C.,AplaGen GmbH | Kessler C.,RWTH Aachen | Greindl A.,AplaGen GmbH | Greindl A.,RWTH Aachen | And 11 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2012

EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) have a completely different structure than erythropoietin (EPO) or new generation recombinant erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) like Darbepoietin alfa (Aranesp) and continuous erythropoiesis stimulating agent (CERA). This study intended to compare the effects of a novel compound called AGEM400(HES), consisting of a dimeric EMP conjugated to hydroxyethyl starch (HES), to those of recombinant EPO. AGEM400(HES) efficiently stimulated erythropoiesis in vitro and efficiently stimulated survival of EPO-dependent cell line UT7/EPO. It also efficiently induced phosphorylation of signaling proteins in these models. However, AGEM400(HES) was shown to have weak or absent effects on survival of, and signaling in, three different EPO-responsive hematopoietic cell lines. In the latter models, when added in excess to moderate concentrations of EPO, AGEM400(HES) inhibited the activity of EPO in a fashion indicating receptor binding competition between EPO and AGEM400(HES). It was furthermore shown, using stably transfected BA/F3 cells, that the degree of responsiveness of a cell to AGEM400(HES) relative to its responsiveness to EPO, correlated with the level of EPO receptor surface expression. The findings presented raise intriguing possibilities because they imply that not all side-effects said to be associated with EPO must necessarily be elicited by AGEM400(HES) too. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Richter A.,University of Bremen | Lubbing M.,University of Bremen | Lubbing M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Frank H.,AplaGen GmbH | And 5 more authors.
European Cells and Materials | Year: 2011

In previous research, it was shown that recombinant HMGA2 protein enhances the proliferation of porcine chondrocytes grown in vitro, opening up promising applications of this embryonic architectural transcription factor for tissue engineering, such as in cartilage repair. In this paper, we describe the development and analyses of two synthetic fragments comprising the functional AT-hook motifs of the HMGA2 protein, as well as the nuclear transport domain. They can be synthesised up to large scales, while eliminating some of the problems of recombinant protein production, including unwanted modification or contamination by the expression hosts, or of gene therapy approaches such as uncontrolled viral integration and transgene expression even after therapy. Application of one of these peptides onto porcine hyaline cartilage chondrocytes, grown in in vitro monolayer cell culture, showed a growth-promoting effect similar to that of the wild type HMGA2 protein. Furthermore, it also promoted cell growth of adult adipose tissue derived stem cells. Due to its proliferation inducing function and vast availability, this peptide is thus suitable for further application and investigation in various fields such as tissue engineering and stem cell research.


Danial M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Van Dulmen T.H.H.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Aleksandrowicz J.,AplaGen GmbH | Potgens A.J.G.,AplaGen GmbH | Klok H.-A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2012

Peptides derived from the HR1 or HR2 regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41 have been shown to be effective inhibitors to prevent virus-host cell membrane fusion. These peptide drugs, however, suffer from relatively short plasma half-lives and are susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Modification of peptides/proteins with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a well-established strategy to overcome these limitations. This manuscript presents the results of a systematic study on the influence of the site of PEGylation of HR2-derived peptides, as well as of PEG molecular weight on the biological activity and proteolytic stability of these conjugates. Investigation of the fusion inhibitory efficacy of the conjugates in a model cell-cell based assay revealed a loss in activity for the PEGylated peptides as compared to the wild-type HR2-derived peptide. The loss of activity, however, can be minimized by controlling the site of PEGylation, more specifically, by introducing the PEG chain at one of the more central positions along the non-interacting α-helical surface of the peptides. The proteolytic stability of the PEG-peptide conjugates was assessed in a trypsin-based model assay, which revealed an up to 3.4-fold increase in degradation half-life that may help to compensate for the lower inhibitory efficacy of the PEG-peptide conjugates as compared to the wild-type peptide. The results of this study emphasize the power of site-specific PEGylation to improve the stability of peptide/protein drugs while minimizing adverse effects on biological activity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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