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Lewis S.H.,APL
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2014

Improving the overall health of a given population has far-reaching effects not only on the economy and stability of that particular population but also on a global scale. Disease surveillance, a critical component in understanding and improving global health, is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in information technology. Recent years have seen vast improvements in the collection, analysis, visualization, and reporting of public health data. At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), teams of software engineers, analysts, and epidemiologists have been working for more than 15 years to develop advanced electronic disease surveillance technologies. This issue of the Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest describes the development and implementation of these technologies, the process and challenges of making the tools open source, and potential new analytic models for early detection of disease outbreak. © 2014 by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Source

Hahn E.N.,APL
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2014

The use of open-source software (OSS) has dramatically increased in the past several years, particularly in the public health domain. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory's (APL) work on developing and licensing OSS identified a need within the public health community to better understand the definition and connotations of the words open source and the various open-source licenses. The use of OSS in the public health domain can dramatically improve the implementation of mobile and electronic health initiatives in resource-limited settings because OSS provides an affordable alternative to costly proprietary software. © 2014 by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Source

Woodgate R.A.,University of Washington | Stafford K.M.,APL | Prahl F.G.,Oregon State University
Oceanography | Year: 2015

The flow through the Bering Strait, the only Pacific-Arctic oceanic gateway, has dramatic local, regional, and global impacts. Advanced year-round moored technology quantifies challengingly large temporal (subdaily, seasonal, and interannual) and spatial variability in the ~85 km wide, two-channel strait. The typically northward flow, intensified seasonally in the ~10–20 km wide, warm, fresh, nutrient-poor Alaskan Coastal Current (ACC) in the east, is otherwise generally homogeneous in velocity throughout the strait, although with higher salinities and nutrients and lower temperatures in the west. Velocity and water properties respond rapidly (including flow reversals) to local wind, likely causing most of the strait’s approximately two-layer summer structure (by “spilling” the ACC) and winter water-column homogenization. We identify island-trapped eddy zones in the central strait; changes in sea-ice properties (season mean thicknesses from <1 m to >2 m); and increases in annual mean volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes from 2001 to present (2013). Tantalizing first results from year-round bio-optics, nitrate, and ocean acidification sensors indicate significant seasonal and spatial change, possibly driven by the spring bloom. Moored acoustic recorders show large interannual variability in sub-Arctic whale occurrence, related perhaps to water property changes. Substantial daily variability demonstrates the dangers of interpreting section data and the necessity for year-round interdisciplinary time-series measurements. © 2015 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved. Source

Newman A.J.,Weapon and Targeting Systems Group | Mitzel G.E.,APL
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2013

Upstream data fusion (UDF) refers to the processing, exploitation, and fusion of sensor data as closely to the raw sensor data feed as possible. Upstream processing minimizes information loss that can result from data reduction methods that current legacy systems use to process sensor data; in addition, upstream processing enhances the ability to exploit complementary attributes of different data sources. Since the early 2000s, APL has led a team that pioneered development of UDF techniques. The most mature application is the Air Force Dynamic Time Critical Warfighting Capability program, which fuses a variety of sensor inputs to detect, locate, classify, and report on a specific set of high-value, time-sensitive relocatable ground targets in a tactically actionable time frame. During the late 2000s, APL began expanding the application of UDF techniques to new domains such as space, maritime, and irregular warfare, demonstrating significant improvements in detection versus false-alarm performance, tracking and classification accuracy, reporting latency and production of actionable intelligence from previously unused or corrupted data. This article introduces the concept, principles, and applicability of UDF, providing a historical account of its development, details on the primary technical elements, and an overview of the challenges to which APL is applying this technology. Source

Phillips C.S.,APL
Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory) | Year: 2015

The Army has long recognized that detailed research and analysis generates both analytic and technological advantages, improves planning, and saves time, money, and lives. An early product of this recognition is the first volume of the Casebook on Insurgency and Revolutionary Warfare. First published by the Special Operations Research Office (SORO) in 1962, this collection of case studies provides irregular warfare (IW) planners with the backbone of historic insurgency analysis that informs future planning. SORO's efforts ended in 1966 with the publication of Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies. In 2011, to address the resulting 45-year gap in analysis of insurgencies, the U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) G3 Sensitive Activities Division partnered with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The resulting project, Assessing Revolutionary and Insurgent Strategies (ARIS), aims to provide IW planners, practitioners, and students a value-neutral, academically rigorous, standardized analytic framework and an impartial account of insurgencies and revolutions. In 2013, the ARIS team recognized the need for materials that would help instructors integrate ARIS research into the IW classroom. The challenge was to design products that fit the needs of beginner, intermediate, and advanced students in meeting a range of IW objectives. The ARIS team developed a host of educational products, including published works, guided discussion lessons, exercise scenarios, analytic tools, and video and resource libraries, all housed on a single portal maintained by APL. Instructors and students at the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School and at Georgetown University actively use these resource. Source

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