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Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

Batista B.L.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silva L.R.S.,Federal University of Goais | Rocha B.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues J.L.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | And 5 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Multi-element analysis of honey samples was carried out with the aim of developing a reliable method of tracing the origin of honey. Forty-two chemical elements were determined (Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cd, Tl, Co, Ni, Rb, Ba, Be, Bi, U, V, Fe, Pt, Pd, Te, Hf, Mo, Sn, Sb, P, La, Mg, I, Sm, Tb, Dy, Sd, Th, Pr, Nd, Tm, Yb, Lu, Gd, Ho, Er, Ce, Cr) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then, three machine learning tools for classification and two for attribute selection were applied in order to prove that it is possible to use data mining tools to find the region where honey originated. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Random Forest (RF) chemometric tools for honey origin identification. Moreover, the selection tools allowed a reduction from 42 trace element concentrations to only 5. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brancalion A.P.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveira R.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Sousa J.P.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Groppo M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Urological Research | Year: 2012

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.commonly known as "copaíba", produce a commercially valuable oil-resin that is extensively used in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiseptic purposes. We have found the hydroalcoholic extract of this plant leaf has the potential to treat urolithiasis, a problem affecting ∼7% of the population. To isolate the functional compounds C. langsdorffii leaves were dried, ground, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution 7:3 to produce a 16.8% crude extract after solvent elimination. Urolithiasis was induced by introduction of a calcium oxalate pellet (CaOx) into the bladders of adult male Wistar rats. The treated groups received the crude extract by oral gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight daily for 18 days. Extract treatment started 30 days after CaOx seed implantation. To monitor renal function sodium, potassium and creatinine concentrations were analyzed in urine and plasma, and were found to be in the normal range. Analyses of pH, magnesium, phosphate, calcium, uric acid, oxalate and citrate levels were evaluated to determine whether the C. langsdorffii extract may function as a stone formation prevention agent. The HPLC analysis of the extract identified flavonoids quercitrin and afzelin as the major components. Animals treated with C. langsdorffii have increased levels of magnesium and decreased levels of uric acid in urinary excretions. Treated animals have a significant decrease in the mean number of calculi and a reduction in calculi mass. Calculi taken from extract treated animals were more brittle and fragile than calculi from untreated animals. Moreover, breaking calculi from untreated animals required twice the amount of pressure as calculi from treated animals (6.90 ± 3.45 vs. 3.00 ± 1.51). The extract is rich in flavonoid heterosides and other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we hypothesize this class of compounds might contribute significantly to the observed activity. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Tavares D.C.,University of Franca | Senedese J.M.,University of Franca | Rodrigues A.R.,University of Franca | Furtado M.A.,University of Franca | And 4 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2011

Propolis possesses various biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and antioxidant properties. A topically applied product based on Brazilian green propolis was developed for the treatment of burns. For such substance to be used more safely in future clinical applications, the present study evaluated the mutagenic potential of topical formulations supplemented with green propolis extract (1.2, 2.4 and 3.6) based on the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and of micronuclei. In the in vitro studies, 3-h pulse (G 1 phase of the cell cycle) and continuous (20h) treatments were performed. In the in vivo assessment, the animals were injured on the back and then submitted to acute (24h), subacute (7 days) and subchronic (30 days) treatments consisting of daily dermal applications of gels containing different concentrations of propolis. Similar frequencies of chromosomal aberrations were observed for cultures submitted to 3-h pulse and continuous treatment with gels containing different propolis concentrations and cultures not submitted to any treatment. However, in the continuous treatment cultures treated with the 3.6 propolis gel presented significantly lower mitotic indices than the negative control. No statistically significant differences in the frequencies of micronuclei were observed between animals treated with gels containing different concentrations of propolis and the negative control for the three treatment times. Under the present conditions, topical formulations containing different concentrations of green propolis used for the treatment of burns showed no mutagenic effect in either test system, but 3.6 propolis gel was found to be cytotoxic in the in vitro test. Copyright © 2011 Juliana Marques Senedese et al. Source

Hori J.I.,University of Sao Paulo | Zamboni D.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Carrao D.B.,Apis Flora Industrial e Comercial LTDA | Goldman G.H.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 g/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. © 2013 Juliana I. Hori et al. Source

Barud H.D.S.,Sao Paulo State University | De Araujo Junior A.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Saska S.,Sao Paulo State University | Mestieri L.B.,Sao Paulo State University | And 13 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Among remarkable discoveries concerning propolis, such as antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, its anti-inflammatory, and mainly its antibacterial, properties deserve special attention when skin wound healing is concerned. Based on this and knowing the distinctive performance of bacterial (BC) membranes on wound healing, in this work it is proposed to demonstrate the potent antimicrobial activity and wound healing properties of a novel propolis containing biocellulose membrane. The obtained propolis/BC membrane was able to adsorb propolis not only on the surface, but also in its interstices demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravidimetric assays. Additionally, the polyphenolic compounds determination and the prominent antibacterial activity in the membrane are demonstrated to be dose dependent, supporting the possibility of obtaining propolis/BC membranes at the desired concentrations, taking into consideration its application and its skin residence time. Finally, it could be suggested that propolis/BC membrane may favor tissue repair in less time and more effectively in contaminated wounds. © 2013 Hernane da Silva Barud et al. Source

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