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Barnett J.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA | Barnett J.,University of Exeter | Dastjerdi A.,APHA | Davison N.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox-and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species) detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera. © 2015 Barnett et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Broughan J.M.,APHA | Harris K.A.,APHA | Brouwer A.,APHA | Downs S.H.,APHA | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

This report, provided by the APHA, summarises the infection status of bovine TB in cattle in Great Britain from January 1 to December 31, 2013 and describes some of the temporal trends observed over a longer period. It updates the previous annual summary for 2012, also published in Veterinary Record (VR, June 14, 2014, vol 174, pp 600-604). © 2015, British Veterinary Association. All rights reserved.

Everett H.E.,APHA | Crudgington B.S.,APHA | Sosan-Soule O.,APHA | Crooke H.R.,APHA
BMC veterinary research | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Control of classical swine fever (CSF) by vaccination ideally requires that field strain infection can be detected irrespective of the vaccination status of the herd. To inform on the usefulness of molecular tests compatible with genetic Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) principles when using live-attenuated vaccines, tonsil homogenates from a vaccination-challenge experiment were analyzed using a differential real-time qRT-PCR for the C-strain vaccine or real-time qRT-PCR assays developed to specifically detect the challenge strains used.RESULTS: In animals with high or moderate levels of blood viraemia, which were not, or not fully, protected by vaccination, challenge virus RNA was readily detected in tonsil homogenates. In three out of the seven vaccinated animals that had high or moderate viraemia, the vaccine strain RNA also could be detected but at lower levels. Lower but varying levels of challenge and/or vaccine virus RNA were detected in tonsil homogenate samples from animals with no or low-level viraemia, and in groups solely consisting of such animals, no transmission of infection to naïve in-contact animals occurred. In one group of animals that were vaccinated 3 days prior to challenge, viraemia levels varied from high to absent and transmission of challenge virus to naïve in-contact animals occurred. The DIVA assay revealed challenge virus in all tonsil homogenates from this group, even in those animals that did not have viraemia and were protected from clinical disease by vaccination. Such animals, particularly in a low biosecurity/informal farm setting, could constitute a risk for disease control in the field.CONCLUSIONS: Genetic DIVA testing is useful for detecting the presence of field virus infection especially in non-viraemic animals without overt clinical signs but which are incompletely protected by vaccination. Such tests could particularly be useful to inform decisions prior to and during cessation of a control strategy that employs vaccination.

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