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Lizarralde I.,ESTIA Recherche | Tyl B.,APESA
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

Although the impact of technology on society has been widely studied in the literature, few studies have proposed a practical approach directly engaging stakeholders, including designers and engineers, in the development of new products and services. Within the degrowth movement, some approaches criticizing the western model of development suggest original criteria that could be integrated in the design process.The current study seeks to analyze the conviviality concept of Ivan Illich (1973) to develop a new framework for designers. To that end, current design literature and four industrial case studies were analyzed according to the five main threats to conviviality: the biological degradation of the ecosystem, radical monopoly, over-programming, polarization, and obsolescence. As a result, this paper proposes a framework that includes two guidelines: one for product scope and another for the socio-technical system scope. The guidelines are composed of a set of recommendations that emerge from the relationship between the threats to conviviality and life cycle stages of a product or service.These recommendations allow designers and engineers to better approach the complexity of the design process and co-create a strong sustainable society with stakeholders. © 2017.

Aullo T.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour | Berlendis S.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour | Lascourreges J.-F.,APESA | Dessort D.,Total S.A. | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Deep subsurface aquifers despite difficult access, represent important water resources and, at the same time, are key locations for subsurface engineering activities for the oil and gas industries, geothermal energy, and CO2 or energy storage. Formation water originating from a 760 m-deep geological gas storage aquifer was sampled and microcosms were set up to test the biodegradation potential of BTEX by indigenous microorganisms. The microbial community diversity was studied using molecular approaches based on 16S rRNA genes. After a long incubation period, with several subcultures, a sulfate-reducing consortium composed of only two Desulfotomaculum populations was observed able to degrade benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, extending the number of hydrocarbonoclastic-related species among the Desulfotomaculum genus. Furthermore, we were able to couple specific carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation during benzene removal and the results obtained by dual compound specific isotope analysis (εC = -2.4‰ ± 0.3‰; εH = -57‰ ± 0.98‰; AKIEC: 1.0146 ± 0.0009, and AKIEH: 1.5184 ± 0.0283) were close to those obtained previously in sulfate-reducing conditions: this finding could confirm the existence of a common enzymatic reaction involving sulfate-reducers to activate benzene anaerobically. Although we cannot assign the role of each population of Desulfotomaculum in the mono-aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, this study suggests an important role of the genus Desulfotomaculum as potential biodegrader among indigenous populations in subsurface habitats. This community represents the simplest model of benzene-degrading anaerobes originating from the deepest subterranean settings ever described. As Desulfotomaculum species are often encountered in subsurface environments, this study provides some interesting results for assessing the natural response of these specific hydrologic systems in response to BTEX contamination during remediation projects. © 2016 Aüllo, Berlendis, Lascourrèges, Dessort, Duclerc, Saint-Laurent, Schraauwers, Mas, Patriarche, Boesinger, Magot, Ranchou-Peyruse.

Tyl B.,APESA | Lizarralde I.,ESTIA
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2017

Nowadays, energy transition is a crucial issue to achieve sustainability. Emergent works emphasize the need to shift from a centralized energy production, based on large-scale production unit, to a more distributed one, based on small-scale and flexible production units. Therefore, energy projects cannot be longer dissociated from territories in order to better fit with local specificities. Moreover, such projects do not only focus on energy supply but also provide a variety of services, being closer to the end-user/citizen than traditional energy companies. The implementation of these territorial energy projects addresses a triple technical, legal and financial challenge, in order to create sustainable value on territories. Indeed, as Product/Service-Systems (PSS), these projects require high investments and the involvement of the future end-user as much as possible. An efficient way to involve the end-user is to allow its participation as a finance provider. This paper focuses on financial challenges and on alternative models to finance renewable energy projects through citizen funding. To do so, we analysed five alternative funding models both on an economic and "end-user/citizen" points of view. Our study underlines the heterogeneity of models in terms of value proposal, citizen involvement, governance or implantation on the territories, and proposes a new classification of these models. © 2017 The Authors.

Tyl B.,APESA | Lizarralde I.,ESTIA Recherche | Allais R.,University of Technology of Troyes
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2015

Design has a great role to play in sustainability. Interesting progresses has been performed within the last decades. Nevertheless, some issues of sustainability, and their impact on design, remains poorly studied. Specifically, when it comes to the field of local value creation, the literature in design is still limited. However, the Local Value Creation (LVC) thinking can be a great insight for designers to develop more ecoinnovative concepts, through new product design, new services and new business models. In order to go towards this direction, it is necessary to include new variables that are rarely considered in design processes such as the local workforce, sustainable local resources or the customization of the new product or service for local customers. This paper proposes a better understanding of the relation between eco-design approaches and LVC, and more precisely how current eco-design approaches consider this issue. To do so, a first part introduces the Local Value Creation concept and its challenges for sustainability. Then, a second part focuses on a literature review to understand how the LVC dimension is studied in the eco-design process. This will lead in a third section to concretely characterize how eco-design approaches and tools consider LCV issue. A last section proposes to identify potential contradiction between the LVC and the eco-design concept, in order to draw first outlines of a new eco-design paradigm with a Local Value Creation dimension. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Leroy Y.,École Centrale Paris | Tyl B.,APESA | Vallet F.,Compiègne University of Technology | Cluzel F.,APESA
Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED | Year: 2015

In early eco-innovation phases, design teams need to assess the environmental relevance of ideas, and consequently, the evaluation stage becomes even more critical, subjective and uncertain than in traditional design. This paper tackles the following question "How to turn elementary ideas into concepts with a high environmental potential in a design team?" Based on eco-innovation literature, we propose to test two methods involving mapping, selection, combination and environmental evaluation of ideas (namely Combineval and Geneval) plus additional free method. Starting with 14 to 15 elementary ideas, three groups of mixed academics and industrials are asked to generate 3 to 5 environmentally relevant concepts on two different test cases. Main results show that there is a large inter-group variability in the evaluation of environmental potential of ideas. Our contribution deals with the systematisation of the environmental evaluation of ideas in early phases thanks to adapted methods and tools. Should the format of ideas be highlighting environmental or a sustainable consideration is one of the emerging issues of the paper.

Tyl B.,APESA | Vallet F.,Compiègne University of Technology | Bocken N.M.P.,University of Cambridge | Bocken N.M.P.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Many tools have been developed to support the Front End of Eco-Innovation (FEEI) to design more radical product/service concepts. Although it is widely recognised that designers need to extend the consideration of key stakeholders in the value chain, few studies analyse the impact of the integration of the 'stakeholder' notion into eco-innovation practices. This paper aims at understanding how the 'stakeholder' perspective can usefully be integrated into eco-innovation sessions. In addition to an extended literature review of existing eco-innovation tools with a stakeholder perspective, this paper adopts an original "research scenario" perspective through a collection of case studies, with various participants, cultural backgrounds, and industrial or academic contexts. Through a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) framework, the paper analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the integration of the stakeholder notion into eco-innovation tasks. This research highlights the different ways to consider stakeholders at the FEEI stage, from stakeholder identification to the analysis of the different types of stakeholder value. Moreover, the need to adapt the stakeholder approach according to the type of FEEI tool user is emphasised. Stakeholder typologies can be reduced to a few key unfamiliar stakeholders during the ideation process with industrialists, while the number of stakeholders can be more exhaustive in an educational approach. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Berlendis S.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour | Lascourreges J.-F.,APESA | Schraauwers B.,APESA | Sivadon P.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour | Magot M.,University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

BTEX biodegradation by an indigenous deep subsurface microbial community was evaluated in a water sample collected in the area of an underground gas storage. Five different sulfate-reducing microbial communities able to use at least either benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or xylene (BTEX) compounds were studied. A total of 21 different bacterial phylotypes were identified, each community containing three to nine bacterial phylotypes. Archaeal phylotypes were retrieved from only three communities. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that i) these consortia were mainly composed of novel species, some of which belonging to bacterial groups not previously suspected to be involved in BTEX anaerobic degradation, ii) three consortia were dominated by an uncultured Pelobacter sp. previously detected in biodegraded oil reservoirs, iii) a deeply branching species distantly affiliated to Thermotogales was abundant in two consortia, and that iv) Firmicutes related to the Desulfotomaculum and Carboxydocella genera represented the only three detectable phylotypes in a toluene-degrading consortium. This work shows that subdominant microbial populations present in a deep subsurface aquifer used for seasonal underground gas storage could be involved in the natural attenuation of the traces of BTEX coinjected with methane in the deep subsurface. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Ha-Duong M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gaultier M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Deguillebon B.,APESA
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

This text describes the social aspects of Total's CO2 integrated capture, transport and storage pilot project in southwestern France, from the initial press conference February 8th, 2007 to the formal opening in January 2010. The economic and social context was favorable. The company conducted a significant outreach campaign. It was followed by an effective involvement of stakeholders, if not of the general public, through a formal continuous deliberation process led by the public authorities. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Vallet F.,CNRS Roberval Laboratory (Mechanical Research Unit) | Tyl B.,APESA | Millet D.,SUPMECA | Eynard B.,CNRS Roberval Laboratory (Mechanical Research Unit)
Green Design, Materials and Manufacturing Processes - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Intelligent Manufacturing, SIM 2013 | Year: 2013

For the last decades, designers have been facing a new challenge: design products and services with lower environmental impact and greater value to customers and society. To meet these expectations, the environmental assessment of solutions in design teams must be relevant and commonly accepted. This is especially true in the early phases of the Product Development Process when details of the concepts are not yet defined. Literature tends to prove that evaluations of ideas vary substantially, meaning that designers do not have the same understanding of ideas or criteria. To organize a more efficient assessment stage and to obtain a reliable assessment, it is necessary to implement new procedures. The subsequent research question is: what are the relevant factors to assess early design concepts from the environmental perspective and create an adhesion to promising ideas (called 'best nuggets') in a design team? To do so an experiment was conducted with four groups of eco-design experts. They were asked to evaluate the environmental relevance of the design concepts generated during two previous ecodesign sessions. Some criteria were common to all groups of designers, such as the potential reduction of environmental impact on each life cycle stage, and the potential reduction of each type of environmental impact (i.e. resource consumption, toxicity, etc⋯). Besides, specific evaluation criteria and their effect on the group adhesion were analyzed: the risk of an environmental impact transfer and the potential positive influence on user. Some results and recommendations are presented in this paper. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group.

Tyl B.,APESA | Legardeur J.,ESTIA | Millet D.,SUPMECA | Vallet F.,UTC Roberval Laboratory
Green Design, Materials and Manufacturing Processes - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Intelligent Manufacturing, SIM 2013 | Year: 2013

Today the challenges of sustainable development require new offers and new uses to be developed within the framework of an eco-innovation process integrating environmental and societal approaches. The aim of this paper is to present the final result of a three year research about the advantages of using creativity tools to foster new concept and idea generation phases during eco-innovation processes. To do so, this paper describes an eco-innovation tool based on the modification of the creativity tool ASIT in the perspective to answer to the challenges and issues raised by sustainable development. Also, by using state of the art in eco-innovation tools, we propose a strategy for adapting the ASIT tool for eco-innovation. This adaptation concerns the preparatory stage, when the group needs to formulate the initial problem, and the eco-ideation stage, when ideas and concepts have to be generated in a sustainable way. This research confirms the need to better support the ideation phase of eco-innovation processes. More generally this paper shows that the eco-innovation processes require stimulation mechanisms in order to lead to more efficient eco-innovations in all the aspects of sustainable development. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group.

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