Annadurai C.,Anna University |
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2015
Cooperative ad-hoc networks are popular because of their ability to provide reliable communication. In this paper, we consider a cooperative ad-hoc network consisting of a source, two decode-and-forward relays and a destination. The source intends to transmit its data to the destination directly as well as through relays. We employ a weighted selection combining at the destination which chooses either the weighted source-to-relay1-to-relay2-to-destination link or source-to-destination link depending upon the instantaneous signal-to-noise-ratio. We derive the end-to-end symbol error probability (SEP) of a triple-hop cooperative network with binary phase-shift keying for a flat, slow Rayleigh fading channel. Further, we develop an algorithm which investigates the performance of this cooperative ad-hoc network in terms of SEP. Results show that the cooperation among the nodes and weighted selection combining improves the performance of ad-hoc networks when compared to a point-to-point link and conventional selection combining. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) greets Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) greets Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) greets Alberta Premier Rachel Notley during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) greets Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) greets Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) greets British Columbia Premier Christy Clark during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) wears maple leaf-themed socks during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (R) poses with Quebec Premier Philippe Couillard during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau speaks during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau gestures as he speaks during a news conference after attending the 21-member Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit in Manila November 19, 2015. Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall (L) speaks during a news conference with Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau at the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (6th R) poses with provincial and territorial premiers during the First Ministers' meeting in Ottawa, Canada November 23, 2015. Also pictured are L-R Nunavut Premier Peter Taptuna, Alberta Premier Rachel Notley, Prince Edward Island... Trudeau's Liberals won an election last month promising radical change on the environment from the previous Conservative administration, which was widely criticized for not doing enough to combat global warming during its near decade in power. Trudeau, who will attend a United Nations environmental summit in Paris next week, says Canada must curb its emissions of greenhouse gases. "In Paris a united Canada will demonstrate that we are serious about climate change," Trudeau told a late-night news conference after meeting with premiers of the 10 provinces and three territories. Alberta, home to most of Canada's oil sands, said on Sunday in a ground-breaking move that it would implement an economy-wide tax on carbon emissions in 2017. Trudeau and the provinces hope their united approach and Alberta's move will help dispel some of the international suspicion about Canada and climate change. At previous U.N. summits the Conservative government sometimes found itself openly at odds with activist groups and even some provinces. Those days were over, said Trudeau. "We need to show a renewed image of Canada to the world," said Quebec premier Philippe Couillard. Some premiers are nervous about the idea. Brad Wall of Saskatchewan says Canada must find a balance between the environment and protecting employment. "As we prepare for Paris and to present a constructive and national front to the world, we just need to be mindful of that fact," he told the closing news conference. Although the Conservatives had pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions to 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, government figures show rising emissions mean the goal is out of reach. Trudeau will not be going to Paris with a new target, but has committed to coming up with a goal with the provinces within 90 days of returning from the talks. Two government scientists told the strategy meeting that Canada's rate of warming was about twice the global rate. This means hotter summers with more forest fires, melting permafrost and a smaller Arctic ice cover that will force polar bears onto land as they search for food, they said.
News Article | November 23, 2015
A new report from the New Climate Economy highlights lessons learned from 15 countries who have undertaken reforms of fossil fuel subsidy policy. The paper, Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform: From Rhetoric to Reality, was partly responsible for the 2015 New Climate Economy report, and now goes further in an effort to articulate “practical steps that policymakers can take to phase out fossil fuel subsidies” — a vital discussion in the lead up to the UN climate conference set to be held in Paris at the end of this month. The report examines what has worked and what hasn’t in attempts to reform fossil fuel subsidy policy, and provides “in-depth case studies of 15 countries.” “Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies offers both economic and climate gains,” said Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, former finance minister of Nigeria and a member of the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate. “Reform could allow for targeted spending on public services for those who need it most and boost economic efficiency. And on the climate front, it could deliver global greenhouse gas emissions reductions of as much as 13% by 2050. Undertaking subsidy reform – and getting it right – is critical for better growth and better climate.” Over the past year we have seen numerous reports published identifying the extent to which industrialized nations around the world are supporting the fossil fuel industry with government-backed subsidies. The latest of these reports was published earlier this month by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Oil Change Institute (OCI), and found that G20 nations are spending $452 billion on fossil fuel subsidies per year. “G20 governments are paying fossil fuel producers to undermine their own policies on climate change,” said Shelagh Whitley, of the Overseas Development Institute. “Scrapping these subsidies would rebalance energy markets and allow a level playing field for clean and efficient alternatives.” The latest report by the New Climate Economy forecasts worldwide governments will spend $650 billion funding fossil fuel subsidies in 2015. “Fossil fuel subsidies create significant burdens on government budgets, taking up as much as 5% of GDP in as many as 40 countries, often more than is spent on health or education,” said Helen Mountford, Program Director of the New Climate Economy. “Removing these subsidies can spur a virtuous circle, freeing up scarce government funds to be spent on other critical priorities, including better targeted support for the poor.” Specifically, in an attempt to provide clear principles for reforming fossil fuel subsidy policy, the report identifies the following steps: “The G20 and APEC have committed to phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies, but most haven’t yet delivered,” added Shelagh Whitely, lead author of the report and a Research Fellow at the Overseas Development Institute. “They should follow the positive examples of change and scale reforms to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies by no later than 2025. In a time when low oil prices are expected to continue and many governments are looking to create fiscal space, there’s no excuse to delay phasing out fossil fuel subsidies any longer.” The full report is available here (PDF) Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.” Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10. Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.
Mental-health disorders are the leading causes of disability worldwide. Nearly 30% of people around the world experience a mood, anxiety or substance-use disorder in their lifetime1. The resources required to address these conditions are inadequate, unequally distributed, inefficiently used and static2. The widespread incarceration of people with mental-health disorders persists. The need and demand for mental-health care is increasing as vulnerable populations expand. Notable are the tens of millions of migrants fleeing persecution, conflict and violence, as well as the survivors of Ebola and other recent threats. Yet there are only 9 mental-health providers per 100,000 people globally; an extra 1.7 million mental-health workers are needed in low- and middle-income countries alone. Mental health does not lack political support. This month, the World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO) will together address the broader development community to make the case for investment in mental health. In the past three years, the importance of mental health has been highlighted by the WHO, in its Mental Health Action Plan for 2013–20; by leaders of countries in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC); and by the health ministers of the Commonwealth nations. In September 2015, mental health was incorporated into the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Five years ago, we, as members of the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health initiative, called for an equitable and global approach to reducing the burden of mental disorders3. The visibility of the issue has come a long way since then. And although there continue to be problems with the delivery of mental-health services, funding for research and innovation in mental health in low- and middle-income countries has increased substantially (albeit from a small base). Since 2011, new investments estimated at US$79.3 million have been made by the three largest funders of mental-health research in low- and middle-income countries (Grand Challenges Canada, the UK Department for International Development and the US National Institute of Mental Health). Researchers in such countries are tackling the dearth of mental-health professionals by testing the delivery of care by non-specialists — such as peers, community health workers or primary-care providers. Others are developing and testing applications on smartphones and tablets to extend access to screening and treatment4. Now, clinicians, patients, caregivers and researchers need to learn from each other. The knowledge gained in all countries must be evaluated, disseminated and adapted for local use everywhere. Crucially, everyone involved must start with the same mindset: when it comes to mental health, all countries are developing countries. Of course, the resources available are drastically different in the developing and developed worlds: a teenager in Afghanistan seeking mental-health care does so in a country that has 1 psychiatrist for every 10 million people, not 1 per 5,000, as in, for instance, Belgium. But no country has sufficient numbers of trained mental-health-service providers. Nearly one-third of the US population lacks adequate access to mental-health-care providers. There are similar shortages in parts of countries as diverse as Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Japan, New Zealand and Slovakia. Even in wealthy countries, 40–60% of people with severe mental disorders do not receive the care they need5. Across all settings, those with the fewest social and economic resources are least likely to receive quality mental-health services, be they in Arctic areas of Canada, inner-city Glasgow or rural Sierra Leone. Today's global mental-health research must lead to interventions developed in and for such underserved communities. Mirroring the global community's commitment to sustainable development, the world needs a global commitment — financial as well as moral — to mental health that supports the translation of ideas and interventions between poor and rich settings while taking into account local needs. If an intervention shows great promise in Iran, for instance, can it be adapted for Poland or Indonesia? In the 1980s and 1990s, global collaborative research led by the WHO enabled cross-national comparisons of the incidence, prevalence and long-term course of mental disorders, as well as cross-cultural conceptualizations of mental illness and traditional modes of understanding and management. Over the past 15 years, many of the efforts in global mental health have focused on introducing high-quality research in low- and middle-income countries to establish an evidence-base for the delivery of services in these nations. More-recent research has focused on efficacy, effectiveness and implementation in low- and middle-income countries. Local research teams frequently collaborate with colleagues in rich countries. Yet, the relevance of this work to underserved populations in high-income countries is not routinely part of the global conversation. In low-income countries, the limited infrastructure for community mental-health care and the dismal budgetary allocations for mental health are significant obstacles to implementing research findings. The status quo is not working — and innovations are needed urgently. The following case studies are exemplars of the approaches we advocate. South–south learning. The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) is a consortium of research institutions and ministries of health funded by the UK government. PRIME aims to scale up mental-health services in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda by integrating these into primary care. Together, these countries have developed locally relevant mental-health plans informed by community advisory boards that include district health administrators, service users, traditional healers and police. The consortium observes cross-country differences and similarities in the evolving mental-health-care systems. The shared framework for developing and implementing plans with local adaptations is a powerful tool. Adaptations included change-management interventions for district managers in South Africa, a mental-health case manager in India, and new assessment tools in Nepal. All country teams have recognized the need for systemic changes. The next phase of the study is evaluation, to assess whether and how these changes affect disease burden. North–north learning. The Arctic Council, an intergovernmental forum for the circumpolar states, has emerged as an avenue for launching collaborative efforts to reduce suicide rates in those countries. Young Alaska Native men experience the highest rates of suicide of any demographic group in the United States. Similarly high rates also occur among some indigenous Arctic communities in Canada, Greenland and Russia. Local responders can benefit from what has been learned and shown to be effective elsewhere. An Arctic Council initiative that ran between 2013 and 2015, led by Canada, identified promising practices for suicide prevention and mental-health promotion, and mapped the evidence across circumpolar communities, noting what interventions were acceptable where. Teams identified common threads that made a programme scalable and adaptable across the region. These included having sustained funding and dedicated physical spaces for services; easy access for community members; having skilled workers who were based in and were knowledgeable about the community; and creating forums for talking about suicide. Crucially, the effort continues in the US-led RISING SUN initiative, which engages researchers, community-members and decision-makers to identify shared tools. South–north learning. BasicNeeds is a global mental-health charity, established in 2000 in Britain, that facilitates access to employment and mental-health care for people with mental illness. The organization refined a model for helping people into care and work and to advocate for their problems in African and Asian countries, including Ghana, Tanzania, Nepal, China and Vietnam. In Nepal, for example, a local charity that specialized in community-based rehabilitation adopted the BasicNeeds model. Working closely with government-funded mental-health clinics, the programme conducted community outreach and facilitated access to mental-health-care services. It reduced expenses for families with ill members. Eligible families received training and financial support for developing and implementing a business plan for income generation. People who received support were all earning money 6–12 months later. BasicNeeds received funding last year from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey, to translate the model to a deprived, inner-city environment in the United States. This kind of translation of practices is just beginning. Technology is increasingly enabling innovators to make their ideas and projects public. One venue for sharing ideas is the Mental Health Innovation Network (MHIN), funded by Grand Challenges Canada and managed by a research team at the London School for Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and the WHO's Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse (of which S.S. is director). Another virtual community is the WHO's Global Clinical Practice Network. This online platform allows thousands of clinicians from around the world to contribute to and benefit from mental-health research. Through it, more than 12,000 clinicians from 139 countries have participated in field trials, testing diagnostic guidelines in a wide range of settings. Such networks also break national, professional and linguistic boundaries to facilitate global conversation and learning. To meet the mental-health needs of vulnerable people everywhere, we must develop, study and practise the translation of knowledge and ideas in all directions. How? Here are six suggestions. Determine which innovations will scale up. Sometimes local application is enough. The community must distil guiding principles that enable practitioners to decide what is right for which contexts. This requires health planners to consider system-level issues (such as human resources and financing) and community-level needs (including acceptability and feasibility of care practices). In all contexts, cost, complexity and fragmented services can curtail wider implementation. Train scientists to translate research findings. A new cadre of global mental-health researchers is needed to adapt treatments to fit local health systems. They must be able to assess needs and must be equipped with the collaborative skills to engage decision-makers, clinicians and community members. They need to generate knowledge that informs cross-cultural translation. Use the community's knowledge. The growing evidence base on effective low-cost mental-health treatments is underused. Scientific knowledge is often inaccessible to practitioners, because they lack the time and resources to review information. We need to develop ways to synthesize new global mental-health findings routinely, and present this information so that users can apply it. The global fight against HIV/AIDS presents one model to draw from: networks of funders, researchers, clinicians and patients have been able to achieve standardized care protocols by sharing information through international working groups, society representatives and UNAIDS, the UN programme for HIV/AIDS. Similar networks exist in vaccine and contraception research. Sustain effective mental-health treatments. A major problem is that research funding does not support continued delivery of services on the ground — this requires a greater commitment from local and national governments and aid agencies to invest in mental health. The WHO Mental Health Action Plan specifically calls for stronger leadership and governance for mental health at the national level, including adequate funding. Around $1.6 billion is needed in low-income countries, and between $6.6 billion and $9.33 billion in lower-middle-income countries, to provide a basic package of mental health services; this is eight and six times more, respectively, than current investments6. The message that poor investment in mental health is costly for all countries must be communicated to leaders with the power to invest7. Evaluate the outcomes of treatments. Globally, we lack adequate information on the impact of services because clinics and health systems often lack the funding, capacity, motivation and protocols for monitoring and evaluation. Rarer still is a mechanism for using the results of evaluation to improve services. So people need to be trained to monitor and evaluate new and established approaches. Collaborative research networks can facilitate this kind of capacity building. The WHO Mental Health Action Plan sets out six global targets to achieve by 2020. For example, it calls for a 20% increase in service coverage for severe mental disorders and a 10% reduction in suicide rates globally. Mental-health advocates, clinicians and patient groups in each country must track progress towards these targets. Disseminate successes and failures. The risks that result from sharing information about programme weaknesses must be minimized. Researchers rely on journal publications to disseminate information, but it is much harder to publish unsuccessful trials or evaluations. We need options beyond research databases. Online platforms such as the MHIN could be used here, especially by those who are not researchers who develop new solutions to local problems. In a world where mental-health innovations cross borders as people do, a mother migrating from Khayelitsha in South Africa to New York could meet a community health worker who delivers a depression treatment in her home, much like the community counsellor at her maternal health clinic in South Africa. People move because of needs and opportunities — so, too, must knowledge.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2010
Iso-intensity contour maps were calculated on the basis of the intensity data derived from historical information about strongest earthquakes in Mexico. Intensity data contain a great deal of information that can be used to constrain the essential characteristics of the seismic source. In particular, both the seismological theory and its practice suggest that the orientation of the source of significant earthquakes is reflected in the elongation of the associated damage pattern. The present paper uses information about historical seismicity in Mexico from 1568 to 1837 to point out the sites, where the strongest damages took place. After information selection, maps of iso-intensities were built to determine epicentres. This information was interpreted, and damages and major risk zones were mapped. The systematic application of this method to all the M > 5.5 earthquakes that occurred in Mexico in the past five centuries produced encouraging results about the determination of the seismic source parameters that compare well with existing instrumental, geological, and geodynamic evidence. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source