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Ankeny, IA, United States

The present invention provides methods for feeding older sows that beneficially reduce feed intake in older sows, yet improve pig survival and weaning weight of pigs from older sows.


Quigley J.D.,APC Inc. | Lago A.,APC Inc. | Chapman C.,University of New Hampshire | Erickson P.,University of New Hampshire | Polo J.,APC Europe S.A.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Refractometry using a Brix refractometer has been proposed as a means to estimate IgG concentration in bovine maternal colostrum (MC). The refractometer has advantages over other methods of estimating IgG concentration in that the Brix refractometer is inexpensive, readily available, less fragile, and less sensitive to variation in colostral temperature, season of the year and other factors. Samples of first-milking MC were collected from 7 dairy farms in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut (n = 84) and 1 dairy farm in California (n = 99). The MC was milked from the cow at 6.1 ± 5.6. h postparturition and a sample was evaluated for Brix percentage by using an optical refractometer. Two additional samples (30. mL) were collected from the milk bucket, placed in vials, and frozen before analysis of total IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) using commercially available plates and by turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). The second sample was analyzed for total bacterial counts and coliform counts at laboratories in New York (Northeast samples) and California (California samples). The Brix percentage (mean ± SD) was 23.8 ± 3.5, IgG concentration measured by RID was 73.4 ± 26.2. g/L, and IgG concentration measured by TIA was 67.5 ± 25.0. g/L. The Brix percentage was highly correlated (r = 0.75) with IgG analyzed by RID. The Brix percentage cut point to define high- or low-quality colostrum (50. g of IgG/L measured by RID) that classified more samples correctly given the proportion of high- (86%) and low-quality (14%) samples in this study was 21%, which is slightly lower than other recent estimates of Brix measurements. At this cut point, the test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 92.9, 65.5, 93.5, 63.3, and 88.5%, respectively. Measurement of IgG by TIA correlated with Brix (r = 0.63) and RID (r = 0.87); however, TIA and RID methods of IgG measurement were not consistent throughout the range of samples tested. We conclude that Brix measurement of total solids in fresh MC is an inexpensive, rapid, and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration. A cut point of 21% Brix to estimate samples of MC >50. g/L was most appropriate for our data. Measurement of IgG in MC by TIA differed from measurement by RID. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source


The present invention provides methods for feeding older sows that beneficially reduce feed intake in older sows, yet improve pig survival and weaning weight of pigs from older sows.


The present invention provides methods for feeding older sows that beneficially reduce feed intake in older sows, yet improve pig survival and weaning weight of pigs from older sows.


Perez-Bosque A.,University of Barcelona | Miro L.,University of Barcelona | Polo J.,APC Europe S.A. | Russell L.,APC Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Spray-dried plasma (SDP) is a complex mixture of active proteins that modulates the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. We examined whether SDP and Ig concentrate (IC) supplementation could modulate cytokine expression and inflammatory mediators in rats challenged with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). Wistar-Lewis rats were fed diets supplemented with SDP (8% wt:wt), IC (1.5% wt:wt), or milk proteins (control diet) from weaning (d 21) to d 34 after birth. On d 32 and 35, the rats were given SEB (0.5 mg/kg; intraperitoneal). Six hours after the second SEB dose, jejunal mucosa and Peyer's patches (PP) from the small intestine were collected. The cytokines interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and leukotrienne B4 (LTB4) were analyzed using commercial kits. SEB increased the release of proinflammatory mediators (IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, and LTB4) in PP (P < 0.05) and in the mucosa (P < 0.05). In both tissues, SDP prevented the increase in IFNγ, IL-6, and LTB4 induced by SEB (P < 0.05). IC reduced the expression of TNFα and LTB4 in PP and mucosa (P < 0.05). SDP supplementation increased IL-10 and mature TGFβ concentrations in intestinal mucosa from both inflamed and noninflamed rats. Both SDP and IC increased the mature:total TGFb ratio (all P < 0.05). Both supplements were effective at preventing the SEB-induced increase in proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratios in PP and mucosa and in serum. The preventive effects of plasma supplements on intestinal inflammation involve modulation of intestinal cytokines, characterized by an increased expression of antiinflammatory cytokines. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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