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Akron, OH, United States

Gregg J.L.,Kent State University | McGuire K.M.,Kent State University | McGuire K.M.,Apatone Development Center | Focht D.C.,Bioptechs Inc. | Model M.A.,Kent State University
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

Cell volume is one of the basic characteristics of a cell and is being extensively studied in relationship to a variety of processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, fertility, or locomotion. At the same time, its measurement under a microscope has not been well developed. The method we propose uses negative transmission contrast rendered to cells by a strongly absorbing dye present in the extracellular medium. Cells are placed in a shallow compartment, and a nontoxic and cell-impermeant dye, such as acid blue 9, is added to the medium. Transmission images are collected at the wavelength of maximum dye absorption (630 nm). Where the cell body displaces the dye, the thickness of the absorbing layer is reduced; thus, an increase in cell thickness produces brighter images and vice versa. The absolute values for cell thickness and volume can be easily extracted from the image by computing the logarithm of intensity and dividing it by the absorption coefficient. The method is fast, impervious to instability of the light source, and has a high signal-to-noise ratio; it can be realized either on a laser scanning or a conventional microscope equipped with a bandpass filter. For long-term experiments, we use a Bioptechs perfusion chamber fitted with a 0.03-mm spacer and an additional port to enable rapid switching of solutions. To show possible applications of this method, we investigated the kinetics of the cell volume response to a hypotonic buffer and to the apoptotic agents staurosporine and ionomycin. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Gilloteaux J.,Northumbria University | Jamison J.M.,Apatone Development Center | Neal D.R.,Apatone Development Center | Summers J.L.,Apatone Development Center | Taper H.S.,Catholic University of Louvain
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2012

Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Gilloteaux J.,Northumbria University | Jamison J.M.,Apatone Development Center | Neal D.,Apatone Development Center | Summers J.L.,Apatone Development Center
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2014

Scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the cytotoxic effects of ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or a VC:VK3 combination on a human prostate carcinoma cell line (DU145) following a 1-h vitamin treatment and a subsequent 24-h incubation in culture medium. Cell alterations examined by light and electron microscopy were treatment-dependent with VC+VK3>VK3>VC>Sham. Oxidative stress-induced damage was found in most organelles. This report describes injuries in the tumor cell nucleus (chromatin and nucleolus), mitochondria, endomembranes, lysosomal bodies (autophagocytoses) and inclusions. Morphologic alterations suggest that cytoskeleton damage is likely responsible for the superficial cytoplasmic changes, including major changes in cell shape and size and the self-excising phenomena. Unlike apoptotic bodies, the excised pieces contain ribonucleoproteins, but not organelles. These deleterious events cause a progressive, significant reduction in the tumor cell size. During nuclear alterations, the nuclei maintain their envelope during chromatolysis and karyolysis until cell death, while nucleoli undergo a characteristic segregation of their components. In addition, changes in fat and glycogen storage are consistent the cytotoxic and metabolic alterations caused by the respective treatments. All cellular ultrastructural changes are consistent with cell death by autoschizis and not apoptosis or other kinds of cell death. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Gilloteaux J.,Northumbria University | Jamison J.M.,Apatone Development Center | Summers J.L.,Apatone Development Center
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2014

One hour after pro-oxidative treatment by either ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or VC: VK3 combination followed by 24-h incubation in culture medium, DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells developed ultrastructural-dependent organelle damage with the sequence Sham>VC>VK3>VC: VK3. Along the nuclear alterations and the cytoplasm self-excisions reducing cell size, other induced injuries concerned mitochondria and endomembranes that associated with lysosomes. Damaged organelles surrounded by specialized endoplasmic membranes formed autophagosomes out of phagophores that also captured pieces of glycogen-rich cytoplasm. Most autophagosomes amassed in the diminished-size perikarya and corroborated the enhanced cytotoxicity of the VC: VK3 treatment. These accumulations did not initiate cell death, instead were merely signs of excessive "recycling" of damaged organelles. These features may reflect that high lysosomal activities provided foodstuffs in an ultimate strategy of survival of the tumor cells already devastated by reactive oxidative species (ROS) energetic sites. As such they became transient markers preceding cell death induced to occur by autoschizis and not by apoptosis or other cell deaths. This report could provide more support for the usage of this vitamin combination named APATONE as inexpensive potent adjuvant or treatment in prostate cancers. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Gilloteaux J.,Northumbria University | Gilloteaux J.,University of Namur | Lau H.L.,Northumbria University | Gourari I.,Northumbria University | And 3 more authors.
Translational Research in Anatomy | Year: 2015

Ovarian cancers are still the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. As a novel strategy against this poor outcome cytotoxic alterations induced by a pro-oxidant treatment on human ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (MDAH 2774) cells are revisited by using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A series of sequential and concomitant cellular and organelle injuries induced by ascorbate: menadione combination (VC: VK3) or Apatone® is emphasized. This adjuvant or treatment is able to kill majority of these tumor cells through 'autoschizic cell death', a mode of cell death different than apoptosis. Autoschizic cell death is significant after a short period of treatment to decrease the ovarian tumor cell population through induced injuries that proceed from membranes to most organelles: karyolysis with nucleolar segregation and fragmentation, autophagy of mitochondria, lysosome and other organelles as well as cytoskeletal defects. The cytoskeletal damages are evidenced by morphology changes that included auto- or self-excised pieces of cytoplasm lacking organelles apparently facilitated by grouping of vacuolated endoplasm. These results obtained against this endometrioid ovary cell line are comforted by other studies using Apatone® against other carcinomas in vitro and in vivo. Altogether these reports support Apatone® as a new drug that can favorably be used as a novel potent, safe, and inexpensive clinical adjuvant or treatment against ovarian cancers. © 2015 Published by Elsevier GmbH. Source

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