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News Article | January 12, 2016
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Scientists from the UK, the US and Canada have developed a new type of synthetic bone graft that can boost the body’s own ability to regenerate bone tissue and could produce better outcomes for patients. The research, which is published in the Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, found that the new type of graft, called Inductigraft, was able to guide bone tissue regeneration in as little as four weeks. Researchers from the Queen Mary University of London’s (QMUL) School of Engineering and Materials Science (SEMS) manipulated the pore structure of the graft to mimic natural bone tissue. “Our challenge is to develop a graft that’s as clever as bone. For this synthetic graft, we looked at the mechanics of how bone adapts to its environment and changed both the chemical and physical composition of the graft, specifically how the holes within the structure are placed and interconnected,” explained Karin Hing, co-author of the study and reader in biomedical materials at QMUL’s Institute of Bioengineering, part of SEMS. By eight to 12 weeks, Inductigraft performed as well on its own as when mixed with the clinical gold standard, called autograft, which is made up of patients’ own bone containing living cells and growth factors. “This new study has real implications for anyone suffering from any sort of skeletal injury, and for surgeons in particular,” says Hing. “At the moment the preference is to use the patients’ own tissue to create or enhance bone grafts, however our results show that Inductigraft can be just as effective, with the advantage that the patient doesn’t have to undergo additional surgery to harvest the autograft.” This work builds upon previous research conducted at QMUL, where the graft chemistry was enhanced by introducing silicate into hydroxyapatite, a traditional synthetic substitute material containing calcium and phosphate, which is chemically similar to natural bone mineral. In previous studies, scientists found that the combination of optimized chemistry and pore structure was better at guiding stem cells to differentiate into cells that produce bone tissue, both in the laboratory and in the body. Further research examining the mechanism of action by which Inductigraft is able to guide bone formation is currently underway and is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and ApaTech Ltd, a spin-out from QMUL. Based on over a decade of research at QMUL, ApaTech was bought by healthcare company Baxter International for £220m in 2010. This story is adapted from material from the Queen Mary University of London, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.


Patent
University of Aberdeen and ApaTech Ltd | Date: 2014-05-09

The present invention provides a process for the preparation of a silicate and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate material. The process comprises the steps of: forming a silicon and optionally carbon-containing calcium phosphate precipitate by an aqueous precipitation method involving preparing an aqueous solution comprising phosphate ions, silicate ions, calcium ions and optionally carbonate ions, wherein the ratio of Ca/P and of Ca/(P+Si) in the solution is maintained above approximately 1.67; and heating the precipitate in an atmosphere comprising carbon and oxygen to form a silicate and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate material. The present invention also provides a synthetic carbonate and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite material, as well as a biomedical material.


Guth K.,Queen Mary, University of London | Campion C.,Apatech Ltd | Buckland T.,Apatech Ltd | Hing K.A.,Queen Mary, University of London
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2010

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-established graft material used in bone repair. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SA; 0.8 wt% Si) has shown greater bone ingrowth and bone coverage than phase pure HA. To assess the effect of microporosity on sensitivity of cell attachment to surface physiochemistry, microporous SA and HA discs, and control Thermanox (TMX) discs were incubated with osteoblastlike cells (5-104 HOS-TE85 cells) under differing tissue culture conditions. To investigate early cellular attachment, organization, and differentiation, cells were also stained for integrin-α5 β1, actin, and runt-related transcription factor (RUNX-2), respectively, after incubation on HA, SA, and TMX discs for 3 days. No significant differences emerged between HA, SA, and TMX discs in mean numbers of cells attached in serum free medium (SFM) over 90 min incubation. In contrast, significantly more cells were attached to SA than HA after 180 min incubation in complete medium (C-MEM) containing fetal calf serum (p<0.05). Cell attachment to SA and HA discs pre-conditioned in SFM supplemented with fibronectin (FN) was lower than discs pre-conditioned in C-MEM, suggesting sensitivity of an active FN conformation to the presence of co-adsorbates. Confocal microscopy demonstrated significantly more co-localization of integrin αβ and actin on SA than HA. Translocalization of RUNX-2 to the nucleus was stronger in cells incubated on SA. Microporosity did not diminish the effect of surface physiochemistry on cell adhesion, and enhanced cell attachment for SA appears to be mediated by differences in the quality of adsorbed protein rather than via direct effects of substrate chemistry. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Coathup M.J.,University College London | Samizadeh S.,University College London | Fang Y.S.,University College London | Buckland T.,ApaTech Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2011

Background: The osteoinductivity of silicate-substituted calcium phosphate and stoichiometric calcium phosphate was investigated with use of ectopic implantation. Implants with a macroporosity of 80% and a strut porosity of 30% were inserted into sites located in the left and right paraspinal muscles of six female sheep. Methods: After twelve weeks in vivo, a longitudinal thin section was prepared through the center of each implant. Bone formation within the implant, bone formation in contact with the implant surface, and implant resorption were quantified with use of a line intersection method. The specimens were also analyzed with use of backscattered scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Results: Silicate substitution had a significant effect on the formation of bone both within the implant and on the implant surface during the twelve-week period. Bone area within the implant was greater in the silicate-substituted calcium phosphate group (mean, 7.65% ± 3.2%) than in the stoichiometric calcium phosphate group (0.99% ± 0.9%, p = 0.01). The amount of bone formed at the surface of the implant was also significantly greater in the silicate-substituted calcium phosphate group (mean, 26.00% ± 7.8%) than in the stoichiometric calcium phosphate group (2.2% ± 2.0%, p = 0.01). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated bone formation within pores that were <5 μm in size, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis confirmed the presence of silicon within the new bone in the silicate-substituted calcium phosphate group. Conclusions: The formation of bone within muscle during the twelve-week period showed both silicate-substituted calcium phosphate and stoichiometric calcium phosphate to be osteoinductive in an ovine model. Silicate substitution significantly increased the amount of bone that formed and the amount of bone attached to the implant surface. New bone formation occurred through an intramembranous process within the implant structure. Clinical Relevance: The use of a silicate-substituted calcium phosphate material instead of stoichiometric calcium phosphate ceramic during orthopaedic surgery may substantially augment repair and regeneration of bone. Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.


Huang J.,University of Cambridge | Best S.M.,University of Cambridge | Bonfield W.,University of Cambridge | Buckland T.,ApaTech Ltd.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2010

Hydroxyapatite containing levels of titanium (TiHA) of up to 1.6 wt.% has been produced via a chemical co-precipitation route. The distribution of Ti was seen by transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to be uniform throughout as-prepared nanosized TiHA particles (20 nm × 100 nm). The incorporation of Ti into the HA structure was found to influence the ceramic microstructure on sintering and the grain size was found to decrease from 0.89 μm with HA to 0.63 μm with 0.8 wt.% TiHA (0.8 TiHA) and 0.45 μm with 1.6 wt.% TiHA (1.6 TiHA). Rietveld refinement analysis showed that there was a proportional increase in both the a and c axis with incorporation of Ti into the HA lattice structure, leading to an increase in the cell volume with the addition of Ti. Fourier transform-Raman analysis showed a slight increase in the ratio of O-H/P-O peaks on TiHA, in comparison with HA. A bone-like apatite layer was formed on the surface of TiHA after immersion in simulated body fluid for 3 days, which demonstrated the high in vitro bioactivity of TiHA. In vitro culture with primary human osteoblast (HOB) cells revealed that TiHA was able to support the growth and proliferation of HOB cells in vitro, with a significantly higher cell activity being observed on 0.8 TiHA after 7 days of culture in comparison with that on HA. Well-organized actin cytoskeletal protein was developed after 1 day of culture, and an increase in cell filopodia (attachment) was observed on TiHA sample surfaces. The results indicate that TiHA has great potential for biomedical applications. © 2009 Acta Materialia Inc.


Patent
ApaTech Ltd | Date: 2015-04-29

A synthetic osteoinductive porous biomaterial is provided comprising: a network of interconnected micropores, wherein the microporosity is 23% by volume or more; wherein the surface free energy of the biomaterial is 19 mJ/m or more; and the mean interconnection diameter and the mean interconnection diameter and the surface free energy are chosen to provide a permeability resulting from the micropores of 0.206 nm2 or greater and a capillary pressure difference in water of 3.7 kPa or more. The biomaterial contains hydroxyapatite and silicon.


Patent
ApaTech Ltd | Date: 2016-08-12

A synthetic osteoinductive porous biomaterial is provided comprising: a network of interconnected micropores, wherein the microporosity is 23% by volume or more; wherein the surface free energy of the biomaterial is 19 mJ/m or more; and the mean interconnection diameter and the mean interconnection diameter and the surface free energy are chosen to provide a permeability resulting from the micropores of 0.206 nm2 or greater and a capillary pressure difference in water of 3.7 kPa or more. The biomaterial contains hydroxyapatite and silicon.


Patent
ApaTech Ltd | Date: 2011-04-18

A biocompatible material comprising a resorbable polymer matrix and at least one additive, wherein the resorbable polymer matrix comprises: (i) at least one non-random copolymer of poly (alkylene oxide) s, and (ii) at least one poly (alkylene glycol) polymer and/or at least one methoxypoly (alkylene glycol) polymer, and wherein the at least one additive is selected from solid particles, porous particles, hollow particles, polymers, inert fillers, bioactive compounds, colour pigments and combinations of two or more thereof.


Patent
ApaTech LTD | Date: 2013-04-12

A delivery device for semi-solid implantable material such as synthetic bone graft substitutes. The device includes a handle, a cylinder extending from the handle and having an outlet at its distal end. A piston is operated by a trigger and is slidable within the cylinder to displace the material from the cylinder. The cylinder has a substantially constant inner diameter along its entire length such that the outlet has substantially the same inner diameter as the rest of the cylinder. When the trigger is fully depressed, a ratchet mechanism is disengaged allowing the piston to be pulled back to a starting position.


Trademark
Apatech Ltd | Date: 2015-02-18

Pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations, namely, materials, namely, bone grafts composed of living material for biomedical applications, biomedical materials, namely, bone grafts composed of living material, bone implants composed of living material, bone grafts composed of living material, bone scaffolds composed of living material, bone adhesives for surgical purposes, bone coatings composed of living material, bone cement for surgical and orthopedic purposes, and surgical implants comprising living tissue for guided tissue regeneration in bone surgery and grafting; sanitary preparations for medical use; medical plasters, materials for dressings, namely, bandages and gauze; material for stopping teeth, dental wax; all purpose disinfectants; preparations for destroying vermin. synthetic materials, namely, synthetic bone implants for biomedical applications; biomedical materials, namely, synthetic bone implants; artificial bone implants; artificial bone grafts; artificial bone scaffolds; artificial bone coatings, namely, bone void fillers; bone setting machines and instruments.

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