Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP

Créteil, France

Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP

Créteil, France
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Hoertel N.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Hoertel N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hoertel N.,University of Paris Descartes | De Maricourt P.,Groupe Hospitalier Sainte Anne | And 4 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery | Year: 2013

Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and chronic medical condition typified by episodic recurrent mania (or hypomania) in addition to major depression. BD is associated with a number of negative outcomes including premature death, reduced quality of life and can also lead to other complications including impaired cognitive function. Unfortunately, the currently available pharmacological treatments for BD are insufficient for many with the condition. Areas covered: This review focuses on known therapeutic targets of mood stabilizing drugs including: the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), the phosphoinositide pathway and protein kinase C (PKC), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and histone deacetylases (HDACs). This article also presents new promising therapeutic targets including: the glutamatergic pathway, mitochondrial modulators, neuropeptide-converting endopeptidases, the insulin transduction pathway, the purinergic system and the melatoninergic system. Expert opinion: Challenges in improving methods and tools to generate, integrate and analyze high-dimensional data are required to allow opening novel routes to BD drug discovery. Through the application of systems biology approaches and the use of bioinformatical tools to integrate all omics data, it will be possible in the near future to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology of BD. This will in turn lead to the identification and exploitation of new potential therapeutic approaches. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Delarue R.,Service dHematologie Adultes | Tilly H.,University of Rouen | Mounier N.,Nice University Hospital Center | Petrella T.,CHU de Dijon | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Immunochemotherapy with rituximab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) has become the standard of care for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We aimed to ascertain if a dose-dense R-CHOP regimen administered every 2 weeks (R-CHOP14) was superior to the standard 3-week schedule (R-CHOP21). Methods: We did a randomised phase 3 trial at 83 centres in four countries. 602 patients aged 60-80 years with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and at least one adverse prognostic factor (age-adjusted international prognostic index ≥1) were eligible for the study. We randomly allocated individuals to R-CHOP-ie, rituximab (375 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), vincristine (1·4 mg/m2, up to 2 mg) all on day 1, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 daily for 5 days-administered every 14 days (n=304) or every 21 days (n=298) for eight cycles. We did permuted-block randomisation (block size four, allocation ratio 1:1) stratified by centre and number of adverse prognostic factors. The primary endpoint was event-free survival. Our analysis was of the intention-to-treat population, and we present the final analysis. This study is registered with, number NCT00144755. Findings: Two patients allocated R-CHOP21 were ineligible for the study and were excluded from analyses. After median follow-up of 56 months (IQR 27-60), 3-year event-free survival was 56% (95% CI 50-62) in the R-CHOP14 group and 60% (55-66) in the R-CHOP21 group (hazard ratio 1·04, 95% CI 0·82-1·31; p=0·7614). Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 224 (74%) of 304 patients allocated R-CHOP14 and 189 (64%) of 296 assigned R-CHOP21, despite increased use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the R-CHOP14 group compared with the R-CHOP21 group. 143 (47%) patients in the R-CHOP14 group received at least one red-blood-cell transfusion versus 93 (31%) in the R-CHOP21 group (p=0·0001). 35 (12%) patients allocated R-CHOP14 received at least one platelet transfusion versus 25 (8%) assigned R-CHOP21 (p=0·2156). 155 (51%) patients who were assigned R-CHOP14 had at least one serious adverse event compared with 140 (47%) who were allocated R-CHOP21. Interpretation: In elderly patients with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and at least one adverse prognostic factor, a 2-week dose-dense R-CHOP regimen did not improve efficacy compared with the 3-week standard schedule. The frequency of toxic side-effects was similar between regimens, but R-CHOP14 was associated with increased need for red-blood-cell transfusion. Funding: Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA), Amgen. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Teyssou E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Takeda T.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Lebon V.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Boillee S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2013

Mutations in SQSTM1 encoding the sequestosome 1/p62 protein have recently been identified in familial and sporadic cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). p62 is a component of the ubiquitin inclusions detected in degenerating neurons in ALS patients. We sequenced SQSTM1 in 90 French patients with familial ALS (FALS) and 74 autopsied ALS cases with sporadic ALS (SALS). We identified, at the heterozygote state, one missense c.1175C>T, p.Pro392Leu (exon 8) in one of our FALS and one substitution in intron 7 (the c.1165+1G>A, previously called IVS7+1 G-A, A390X) affecting the exon 7 splicing site in one SALS. These mutations that are located in the ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA domain) of the p62 protein have already been described in Paget's disease and ALS patients carrying these mutations had both concomitant Paget's disease. However, we also identified two novel missense mutations in two SALS: the c.259A>G, p.Met87Val in exon 2 and the c.304A>G, p.Lys102Glu in exon 3. These mutations that were not detected in 360 control subjects are possibly pathogenic. Neuropathology analysis of three patients carrying SQSTM1 variants revealed the presence of large round p62 inclusions in motor neurons, and immunoblot analysis showed an increased p62 and TDP-43 protein levels in the spinal cord. Our results confirm that SQSTM1 gene mutations could be the cause or genetic susceptibility factor of ALS in some patients. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Dollfus C.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Le Chenadec J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Faye A.,AP HP | Blanche S.,AP HP | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Increasing numbers of children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reaching adolescence, largely because of advances in treatment over the past 10 years, but little is known about their current health status. We describe here the living conditions and clinical and immunovirologic outcomes at last evaluation among this pioneering generation of adolescents who were born before the introduction of prophylaxis for vertical transmission and whose infections were diagnosed at a time when treatment options were limited. Methods. The eligible population consisted of HIV-1-infected children who were born before December 1993 and who were included at birth in the prospective national French Perinatal Cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10). Results. Of the 348 eligible children, 210 (60%; median age, 15 years) were still alive and regularly followed up. Current treatment was highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 77% and 2 nucleoside analogues in 5.0%; 16% had stopped treatment, and 2% had never been treated. The median CD4 cell count was 557 cells/mL, and 200 cells/mL was exceeded in 94% of patients. The median viral load was 200 copies/mL. Viral load was undetectable in 43% of the adolescents and in 54.5% of those receiving HAART. Median height, weight, and body mass index were similar to French reference values for age, and school achievement was similar to nationwide statistics. Better immunologic status was associated with being younger and with having begun HAART earlier. Undetectable viral load was associated with maternal geographic origin and current HAART. Conclusions. Given the limited therapeutic options available during the early years of these patients' lives and the challenge presented by treatment adherence during adolescence, the long-termoutcomes among this population are encouraging. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Charpentier C.,Laboratoire Of Virologie | Charpentier C.,University of Paris Descartes | Laureillard D.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Piketty C.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | And 5 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010

Background: Integrase positions 148 and 155 represent main determinants of resistance to integrase inhibitors. We assessed the prevalence of minority variants harboring such mutations in integrase-naive HIV-infected patients. Methods: Two groups of patients were studied: 40 heavily antiretroviral- experienced patients, initiating a raltegravir-based therapy and 51 antiretroviral-naive patients. Allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) systems, developed for Q148H, Q148R and N155H mutations, were performed at baseline for antiretroviral-experienced patients. Samples from antiretroviral-naive patients were tested with the Q148R AS-PCR assay. Results: The limits of detection of AS-PCR systems were 0.10, 0.10 and 0.05% for Q148H, Q148R and N155H mutations, respectively. AS-PCR systems were successful in 79 of 91 samples. In antiretroviral-experienced patients, Q148R minority variants were frequently detected (26/32 patients, 81%) at low-level frequency (median = 0.40%), whereas no minority variants exhibiting Q148H or N155H mutation were found. Twenty-four of 26 patients exhibiting Q148R variants were virological responders but four of them displayed a delayed virological response occurring between W18 and W36. Two patients exhibited virological failure under raltegravir, both harboring Q148R minority variants at baseline. However, we did not find any association between the presence of Q148R minority variants and an increased risk of virological failure. Q148R minority variants were also found in 86% of antiretroviral-naive patients, a prevalence significantly higher than that of K103N minority variants (26%). Conclusion: Q148R variants were frequently detected, always at low-level, in antiretroviral-experienced and naive patients. Although their presence was not consistently associated with virological failure, their impact on long-term viral suppression needs to be further investigated. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Richalet J.-P.,University of Paris 13 | Larmignat P.,University of Paris 13 | Poitrine E.,University of Paris 13 | Letournel M.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Canoui-Poitrine F.,University Paris Est Creteil
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

An increasing number of persons, exposed to high altitude for leisure, sport, or work, may suffer from severe high-altitude illness. Objectives: To assess, in a large cohort of subjects, the association between physiological parameters and the risk of altitude illness and their discrimination ability in a risk prediction model. Methods: A total of 1,326 persons went through a hypoxic exercise test before a sojournabove 4,000m. They werethen monitoredupat high altitude and classified as suffering from severe high-altitude illness (SHAI) or not. Analysis was stratified according to acetazolamide use. Measurements and Main Results: Severe acute mountain sickness occurred in 314 (23.7%), high-altitude pulmonary edema in 22 (1.7%), and high-altitude cerebral edema in 13 (0.98%) patients. Among nonacetazolamide users (n = 917), main factors independently associated with SHAI were previous history of SHAI (adjusted odds ratios [aOR], 12.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.95-23.66; P < 0.001), ascent greater than 400 m/day (aOR, 5.89; 95% CI, 3.78-9.16; P < 0.001), history of migraine (aOR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.28-4.07; P = 0.005), ventilatory response to hypoxia at exercise less than 0.78 L/minute/kg (aOR, 6.68; 95% CI, 3.83-11.63; P < 0.001), and desaturation at exercise in hypoxia equal to or greater than 22% (aOR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.52-4.11; P < 0.001). The last two parameters improved substantially the discrimination ability of the multivariate prediction model (C-statistic rose from 0.81 to 0.88; P < 0.001). Preventive use of acetazolamide reduced the relative risk of SHAI by 44%. Conclusions: In a large population of altitude visitors, chemosensitivity parameters (high desaturation and low ventilatory response to hypoxia at exercise) were independent predictors of severe high-altitude illness. They improved the discrimination ability of a risk prediction model. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.

Jabre P.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Jabre P.,University of Paris Descartes | Belpomme V.,APHP | Azoulay E.,AP HP | And 22 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The effect of family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the family members themselves and the medical team remains controversial. Methods: We enrolled 570 relatives of patients who were in cardiac arrest and were given CPR by 15 prehospital emergency medical service units. The units were randomly assigned either to systematically offer the family member the opportunity to observe CPR (intervention group) or to follow standard practice regarding family presence (control group). The primary end point was the proportion of relatives with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms on day 90. Secondary end points included the presence of anxiety and depression symptoms and the effect of family presence on medical efforts at resuscitation, the well-being of the health care team, and the occurrence of medicolegal claims. Results: In the intervention group, 211 of 266 relatives (79%) witnessed CPR, as compared with 131 of 304 relatives (43%) in the control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the frequency of PTSD-related symptoms was significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 2.5; P = 0.004) and among family members who did not witness CPR than among those who did (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5; P = 0.02). Relatives who did not witness CPR had symptoms of anxiety and depression more frequently than those who did witness CPR. Family-witnessed CPR did not affect resuscitation characteristics, patient survival, or the level of emotional stress in the medical team and did not result in medicolegal claims. Conclusions: Family presence during CPR was associated with positive results on psychological variables and did not interfere with medical efforts, increase stress in the health care team, or result in medicolegal conflicts. (Funded by Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique 2008 of the French Ministry of Health; number, NCT01009606). Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Richalet J.-P.,University of Paris 13 | Letournel M.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Souberbielle J.-C.,Laboratoire dExplorations Fonctionnelles
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2010

Acute and chronic exposure to high altitude induces various physiological changes, including activation or inhibition of various hormonal systems. In response to activation processes, a desensitization of several pathways has been described, especially in the adrenergic system. In the present study, we aimed to assess whether the hypophyseal hormones are also subjected to a hypoxia-induced decrease in their response to hypothalamic factors. Basal levels of hormones and the responses of TSH, thyroid hormones, prolactin, sex hormones, and growth hormone to the injection of TRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were studied in eight men in normoxia and on prolonged exposure (3-4 days) to an altitude of 4,350 m. Thyroid hormones were elevated at altitude (+16 to +21%), while TSH levels were unchanged, and follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin decreased, while leutinizing hormone was unchanged. Norepinephrine and cortisol levels were elevated, while no change was observed in levels of epinephrine, dopamine, growth hormone (GH), IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. The mean response to hypothalamic factors was similar in both altitudes for all studied hormones, although total T4 was lower in hypoxia during 45 to 60 min after injection. The effect of hypoxia on the hypophyseal response to hypothalamic factors was similar among subjects, except for the GH response to GHRH administration. We conclude that prolonged exposure to high-altitude hypoxia induces contrasted changes in hormonal levels, but the hypophyseal response to hypothalamic factors does not appear to be blunted. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Semerano L.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP | Semerano L.,University of Paris 13 | Assier E.,University of Paris 13 | Delavallee L.,University of Paris 13 | And 2 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Anti-TNF-α drugs have dramatically changed treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in terms of both clinical control and articular damage prevention. Despite this, they hold some important drawbacks, such as frequent therapeutic failures and high costs. Anti-TNF-α active immunization, with a therapeutic vaccine against TNF-α, is a promising alternative anti-TNF-α targeting strategy, potentially devoid of treatment limitations of some of current anti-TNF blocking agents. Areas covered: This review covers the preclinical proof-of-concept of anti-TNF-α vaccination with the kinoid of human TNF-α (TNFK) and analyzes the body of evidence forming the rationale for the application of this strategy in RA and other TNF-α-dependent diseases. We describe the theoretical bases of anti-TNF-α active immunization and of experimental data supporting the applicability of TNFK to human disease in terms of both safety and efficacy. Expert opinion: Based on preclinical efficacy and safety data supporting its feasibility in a Phase I-II trial in Crohn's disease, anti-TNF-α vaccination with TNFK has entered the phase of clinical development and promises to be a valuable anti-TNF-α targeting strategy in human disease. The focus is made in the first clinical trial in RA (Phase II) on the efficacy in active RA patients having developed antibodies against anti-TNF mAbs. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Assistance Publique Hopitaux De Paris Ap Hp | Date: 2013-07-12

The invention relates to an endovascular cutting device for carrying out surgical or medical operations. According to the invention, such a device includes two cutting blades, a means for remotely actuating the two cutting blades, and at least two flexible guide rods, said cutting blades being slidably mounted onto said guide rods, and said remote actuation means including a flexible transmission means, wherein a channel, through which the flexible guide rods (50) are to be inserted, extends through said cutting blades (11, 12, 101, 102) over the entire outer length thereof.

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