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Marseille, France

Nielsen H.M.,Fondation Jean Dausset Center dEtude du Polymorphisme Humain | Nielsen H.M.,University of Aarhus | How-Kit A.,Fondation Jean Dausset Center dEtude du Polymorphisme Humain | Guerin C.,AP HM La Conception | And 13 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer

Overexpression of insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a hallmark of adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Previous studies investigating the IGF2/H19 locus have mainly focused on a single molecular level such as genomic alterations or altered DNA methylation levels and the causal changes underlying IGF2 overexpression are still not fully established. In the current study, we analyzed 62 tumors of the adrenal gland from patients with Conn's adenoma (CA, n=12), pheochromocytomas (PCC, n=10), adrenocortical benign tumors (ACBT, n=20), and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC, n=20). Gene expression, somatic copy number variation of chr11p15.5, and DNA methylation status of three differential methylated regions of the IGF2/H19 locus including the H19 imprinting control region were integratively analyzed. IGF2 overexpression was found in 85% of the ACCs and 100% of the PCCs compared to 23% observed in CAs and ACBTs. Copy number aberrations of chr11p15.5 were abundant in both PCCs and ACCs but while PCCs retained a diploid state, ACCs were frequently tetraploid (7/19). Loss of either a single allele or loss of two alleles of the same parental origin in tetraploid samples resulted in a uniparental disomy-like genotype. These copy number changes correlated with hypermethylation of the H19 ICR suggesting that the lost alleles were the unmethylated maternal alleles. Our data provide conclusive evidence that loss of the maternal allele correlates with IGF2 overexpression in adrenal tumors and that hypermethylation of the H19 ICR is a consequence thereof. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology. Source

Paci A.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Vassal G.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Moshous D.,Hopital Necker Enfants Malades | Bleyzac N.,Hospices Civils | And 7 more authors.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Background: Intravenous (IV) busulfan (Bu) dosing approved in Europe based on 5 body weight (BW) strata has been validated for targeting Bu exposures in children undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and with mostly malignant diseases. The authors conducted an observational study aiming to investigate the behavior and ontogeny of IV Bu pharmacokinetic (PK) disposition, and to reevaluate the consistency of the BW-based dosing in very young children with rare diseases. Methods: The observational study comprised 115 patients, mostly infants with immunodeficiencies and metabolic inherited disorders and with altered liver function and/or iron overload. Additional data (90 children, mostly malignant diseases) were pooled with the first data set. The overall data (205 children aged from 10 days to 15 years) were analyzed using population PK modeling. Results: The BW remained the main determinant of IV Bu PK, and no further covariate effect was identified. Bu clearance (CL) variability was best described by BW allometric functions. Increase of drug CL with the child's growth was faster in younger children. This pattern is likely related to the maturation of GSTA1 enzymes during infancy and was accounted for in the model by estimating a higher BW allometric exponent in children <9 kg compared with that in children ≥9 kg. IV Bu PK was not modified in children with altered liver function and/or iron overload, and no disease specific difference was observed. Bu dosing either adjusted according to the final model or with the approved EU labeling yields similar targeting performances. For both dosing strategies, the percent of patients achieving the therapeutic area under the curve window (900-1500 μmole•min/L were 60% and 70%-90% in children <9 and ≥9 kg, respectively. Conclusions: A population PK model accounting for the highest Bu CL in the youngest patients was validated on training and evaluation data sets. The BW-based dosing strategy recommended in Europe proved to be consistent on a large paediatric cohort representative of the population heterogeneity observed in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Loosveld M.,Aix - Marseille University | Loosveld M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Loosveld M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bonnet M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 36 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer

MYC is a potent oncogene involved in ∼70% of human cancers, inducing tumorigenesis with high penetrance and short latency in experimental transgenic models. Accordingly, MYC is recognized as a major driver of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in human and zebrafish/mouse models, and uncovering the context by which MYC-mediated malignant transformation initiates and develops remains a considerable challenge. Because MYC is a very complex oncogene, highly dependent on the microenvironment and cell-intrinsic context, we generated transgenic mice (tgMycspo) in which ectopic Myc activation occurs sporadically (<10-6 thymocytes) within otherwise normal thymic environment, thereby mimicking the unicellular context in which oncogenic alterations initiate human tumors. We show that while Myc+ clones in tgMycspo mice develop and initially proliferate in thymus and the periphery, no tumor or clonal expansion progress in aging mice (n=130), suggesting an unexpectedly low ability of Myc to initiate efficient tumorigenesis. Furthermore, to determine the relevance of this observation in human pathogenesis we analyzed a human T-ALL case at diagnosis and relapse using the molecular stigmata of V(D)J recombination as markers of malignant progression; we similarly demonstrate that despite the occurrence of TAL1 and MYC translocations in early thymocyte ontogeny, subsequent oncogenic alterations were required to drive oncogenesis. Altogether, our data suggest that although central to T-ALL, MYC overexpression per se is inefficient in triggering the cascade of events leading to malignant transformation.© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bonnet M.,Aix - Marseille University | Bonnet M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bonnet M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Loosveld M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 40 more authors.

Cumulative evidence indicates that MYC, one of the major downstream effectors of NOTCH1, is a critical component of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) oncogenesis and a potential candidate for targeted therapy. However, MYC is a complex oncogene, involving both fine protein dosage and cell-context dependency, and detailed understanding of MYC-mediated oncogenesis in T-ALL is still lacking. To better understand how MYC is interspersed in the complex T-ALL oncogenic networks, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis of MYC activation in a comprehensive collection of primary adult and pediatric patient samples. We find that MYC expression is highly variable, and that high MYC expression levels can be generated in a large number of cases in absence of NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations, suggesting the occurrence of multiple activation pathways in addition to NOTCH1. Furthermore, we show that posttranscriptional deregulation of MYC constitutes a major alternative pathway of MYC activation in T-ALL, operating partly via the PI3K/AKT axis through down-regulation of PTEN, and that NOTCH1m might play a dual transcriptional and posttranscriptional role in this process. Altogether, our data lend further support to the significance of therapeutic targeting of MYC and/or the PTEN/AKT pathways, both in GSI-resistant and identified NOTCH1-independent/MYC-mediated T-ALL patients. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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